APUSH Essay Prep Unit X: Late 1900s

Due to it being the last unit of the year, our teacher gave us a choice on which prompts we have to prepare for so here are the three I chose to do.

(1) In what ways did the Great Society resemble the New Deal in its origins, goals and social and political legacy. Use specific programs and policies to support your argument.

Synthesis: The Affordable Care Act

Contextualisation: Civil Rights Movement


  • Origins and Goals
    • Both were passed in a situation where Congress would be hard-pressed to fail them
    • Helped the poor and unfortunate.
    • New Deal
      • Response to Great Depression
      • Expanded federal power dramatically (usually not something appreciated)
        • supported by the fact that Hoover did nothing about the situation
      • Provided jobs, made farming somewhat profitable again, stabilised prices
      • Advocated for by Roosevelt in his Fireside chats
      • The promise of it was so popular that FDR carried all but 6 states
    • Great Society
      • “War on Poverty” and also racial inequality (with the various 1960s movements in full swing, especially civil rights)
      • LBJ used Kennedy’s name to provide sympathy for his cause
      • LBJ’s insider status in Congress
      • Democratic majorities in both chambers
    • Both were made when their president was insanely popular, the national situation wasn’t so good and their presidents were really good at manipulating the public in favor of their programs.
  • Social Legacies
    • FDR and New Deal
      • 1st female cabinet member, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins as well as more than 100 women in other federal positions
      • FDR’s Black Cabinet
      • As a result of ND, by 1935, 25% of blacks were provided assistance
      • By 1936, 90% of black voters were voting Democrat, opposite from before
      • Indian Reorganisation Act(‘34)- collective land ownership for Indian tribes
      • TVA-targeted poor areas for improvement
    • LBJ and Great Society
      • Apps Development Act- like TVA
      • Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966
        • Similar to TVA except for urban areas
      • Medicare (‘65) for the elderly
      • Economic Opportunities Act (‘64)- to provide education and eliminate poverty by giving people the opportunity to get better jobs
      • Although not really part of the GS, the Civil Rights Act (‘64 and ‘68) and the Voting Rights Act (‘65) both expanded civilian rights for minorities
    • Both tried to improve the lives of minorities and the poor
    • LBJ actively wanted to leave the GS as his legacy and wanted to mirror FDR’s ND, becoming the next FDR
  • Political Legacies
    • In both, the federal gov’t expanded its power over the economy considerably
      • Both FDR and LBJ ran up the deficit by their spending on new programs
      • GS expanded on and continued ND’s healthcare legacy (not very successful as both the Wagner National Health Act of 1939 and the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill died in committee) with Medicaid and Medicare, making the GS one of the only successes in US history in getting healthcare legislation passed (does SS count? It’s not exclusively reserved for medical purposes so…)
    • The failure of either of them to keep their influence is an ever continuing fight even to today between progressivism, war and conservatism
      • Like I said with the Wagner healthcare legislations I mentioned above)
      • Conservative Supreme Court vs New Deal
      • Vietnam eating into Great Society
    • Even through the failures, though, both expanded what the gov’t is capable of and could provide the precedent for future attempts and social and economic reforms like Obamacare 

(2) Describe and account for changes in the American Presidency between 1960 and 1975, as symbolized by Kennedy’s “Camelot”, Johnson’s “Great Society” and Nixon’s “Imperial Presidency”. Address powers of the presidency and the role of the media in your answer.

Synthesis: Jefferson and Hamilton’s view of what America should be like. As widespread media wasn’t available back then, what people heard were only local news and both sides depending on their geographical location would be convinced that the other side would betray the nation’s foundation

Contextualization: TV was becoming more popular in the meantime and its importance could be seen in the Kennedy v Nixon debate. Fun fact: Was probably what convinced politicians to start getting body language coaching.


  • Kennedy
    • Power of president increased under Kennedy
      • Cold War required a strong leader (Castro in Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam)
      • Increased size of federal gov’t (continuation of prior legislation like New Deal as well as his own New Frontier)
      • Democratic majorities in Congress allowed for easier passage of laws
    • Media strengthened Kennedy’s image
      • Appeared youthful, energetic and “glamorous” on TV (can be seen in the post-debate polls in 1960)
      • The image of the “perfect Kennedy family”
      • His death was used to cement his legacy by the media (and Johnson)
  • Johnson
    • Presidential power peaked but then declined
      • Good at “twisting arms” in Congress to get what he wants passed
      • Continuation of Cold War, again, strong leader needed
      • However, backlash came from people who didn’t like his policies (civil rights, GS, Vietnam etc) and his power declined after that
    • LBJ less successful than Kennedy in maintaining his public image
      • Not as good-looking on TV
      • Loss of trust due to credibility gap between his report of Vietnam War vs what the media reported
      • Bad atmosphere (riots and domestic disturbances) in the 60s and extensive coverage of it showed Johnson as someone ineffectual and out-of-touch
  • Nixon
    • Contrary to his “Imperial Presidency”, presidential power actually decreased
      • Democratic control of Congress made it hard for him to fulfill his agenda
      • Slow to disengage from Vietnam when anti-war sentiments were high
      • Used executive action against his enemies, real or perceived (his enemy list)
      • Watergate… Oh, Watergate. Pretty much all of it was propagated by the media (Woodward and Bernstein) and “…I am not a crook.”
      • Increased Congressional oversight of president through the investigation of Watergate
    • Media and Nixon administration hostile towards each other
      • His appeal to the “silent majority” saw his 50% approval rating go up to the 80s
      • Vietnam (invasion of Cambodia, 1970) and unrest at home (Kent State, also 1970) covered by media, bad for Nixon
      • His paranoia about his enemies put the media on the list when they started digging into Watergate and only made suspicions worse

(3) Explain the causes and consequences of immigration and ONE of the following population movements to the United States in the United States during the period 1945–1985 (2011).

Suburbanization    The growth of the Sun Belt

Synthesis: 1916 Great Migration

Contextualization: Sun Belt– jobs, good climate, cheaper land, lots of people moved here, increased pop.



  • Causes:
    • Lifting of restrictive immigration laws pre-WWII
    • Refugees from the War, Korean, Vietnam, Cuba etc
    • Immigration Act (‘65)- opened immigration quotas to non-Europeans
    • Post-war prosperity
    • BRACERO program
    • Influx of immigrants led to:
    • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (McCarran–Walter Immigration Act)
      • Reestablished national origins quotas
      • Repealed Chinese Exclusion Act
      • Barred LGBT and other “subversive persons” from entering the country
    • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
      • Abolished national origins quotas
      • Preferred immigration of professionals and skilled workers
    • Refugees Act of 1980- limit of 270K immigrants
    • Decreases in the cost of travel also contributed to the increase in immigration
  • Consequences:
    • Before the 60s, mostly white immigration– by 80s, more than three-quarters were from Latin America or Asia
    • Post-WWII immigrants include more women and skilled workers
    • Steady increase of immigrants since 45
    • Public concern about amount of immigrants (the classic stuff)
      • Anti-Immigrant sentiments build, especially against Latinos because of illegal immigration
      • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Simpson–Rodino):
        • Granted amnesty to illegal immigrants arriving before 1982.
        • Penalised employers for hiring illegal immigrants.   
    • Added to cultural diversity of US


  • Causes:
    • 1944: GI Bill (loans for houses to veterans)
      • Also the need to build houses to house returning veterans
    • Demographic Trends: Marriage, Childbirth, ”the perfect family” (TV shows)
    • Levittown!!
    • Riots due to racial tensions increased white exodus from the cities
      • An unintended consequence of Brown v Board
    • Housing Acts of ‘49 and ’54
    • Federal Highway Act of 1956 boosted suburban growth
    • 1965: Department of Housing and Urban Development created.
    • Federal Housing Administration (FHA) insured mortgage loans
  • Consequences:
    • FHA policies led to discrimination against racially and economically mixed communities
    • A majority of middle-class Americans moved to suburbs within a generation
    • Loss of population in cities led to loss of business and public institutions
      • Due to lower tax base -> cities became poorer
    • Federal Highway Act of 1956 accelerated the decline of mass transit in older cities
    • Suburbs encouraged individual car use leading to things like drive-in theaters and drive-throughs
    • Gentrification of old urban parts by remaining high-income families (outed the poor)
    • Post-WWII conformity
      • People wanted to have the perfect family as shown in TV shows
      • focus on middle-class ideals
      • Reinvigoration of religion
    • More mobility=more house-moving
    • New Infrastructure like malls, parks, new schools etc for suburbs

APUSH Essay Prep Unit IX: Cold War

We got only got five essay prompts for this unit.

(1) Analyze the impact of TWO of the following on Soviet-American relations in the decade following the Second World War, 1945-1955.

The Yalta Conference    Communist Revolution in China

Korean War    McCarthyism

Synthesis: US-Soviet relations were never good to begin with. Then, with the Cold War came the Red Scare and America’s refusal to recognise the USSR as a legitimate nation. Then, in 1933, President Roosevelt ended this non-recognition in hopes of bettering the US’s economic situation during the Great Depression.

Contextualisation: You can use the Communist Revolution in China and how that excited more fears of communist expansion and power.

  • American efforts to prevent a civil war in China and the expansion of communism failed.
  • In 1949 the Communists won the battle against the Nationalists and Mao Zedong declared the existence of the People’s Republic of China, showing how he would align the country with the Soviet Union.
  • On February 15, 1950 a treaty of alliance between the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union was signed. It was called the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance. – The Soviet Union recognised the People’s Republic of China while the United States did not as easily want to recognise the new regime.
  • The Communist Revolution in China affected Soviet-American relations seeing as though there was another communist world power when America was trying to obstruct the expansion of communism


Yalta Conference —

  • Stalin wanted postwar economic assistance for Russia and British and U.S. recognition of a Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Churchill wanted the protection of the British Empire but also clarify what would happen to Germany after the war. The United States wanted an agreement on the United Nations and Soviet agreement to enter the war on the Pacific Theatre after Hitler was defeated.
    • Churchill and Roosevelt promised the Soviet Union concessions in Manchuria and the territories it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War.
    • They also accepted Stalin’s pledge to include pro-westerners in the new Polish government and to allow elections as soon as possible. (in reality, Stalin installed a pro-communist regime and brutally subdued the anti-communist Poles)
  • The outcome of the Yalta conference did not satisfy all three leaders. None were able to reach an agreement on the future of Germany, but Stalin vowed to declare war on Japan after Germany’s surrender.
  • After Germany was defeated, Truman grew tired of waiting for the Russians to allow free elections in Poland and threatened to cut off lend-and-lease aid; on the other hand, Stalin strengthened his grip on Eastern Europe, ignoring the promises he made at Yalta.
  • The Yalta Conference brought to light the issue of postwar Poland. The Poland issue created mistrust and animosity between the Soviet Union and the United States. Roosevelt was later accused of “giving away” Eastern Europe to Stalin. (Very important)
  • The lack of peaceful agreements that satisfied all three Allied leaders during the Second World War led to Soviet-American relations suffering, which would eventually lead to the Cold War.

Korean War —

  • After WWII, U.S. and the Soviet Union temporarily divided Korea.
  • America supported South Korea and the Soviet Union supported North Korea; both wanting the sole right to rule all of Korea.
  • North Korean troops attacked South Korea, so Truman fought back seeing the attack as a Soviet test of U.S. will and containment
  • Truman did not want to be accused of “selling out” Eastern Europe as FDR had been before. He needed to stand up to the Russians and prevent the spread of communism.
  • As U.N. forces were crossing the 38th parallel, the Chinese intervened and at the end of the war, Korea had the same boundary as before. The war caused 800,000 Chinese casualties, more than 50,000 American lives along with thousands of U.N. troops, and the death of millions of Koreans.
  • The Korean War further showed how the United States had a commitment to prevent the spread of communism, further angering the Russians and causing American-Soviet relations to worsen.
  • Added “fuel to the fire” during the Cold War

(2) Analyze the successes and failures of the United States Cold War policy of containment as it developed in TWO of the following regions of the world during the period 1945 to 1975.

Southeast Asia    Europe    Middle East    Latin America

Synthesis: Wilson’s “Make the world safe for democracy” and “end all wars” in WW1→ failure due to idealism

Contextualisation: The failure to contain Communism was accompanied by a growing fear and suspicion of Communism within the nation, which eventually led to the McCarthyism and the Red Scare, where many, especially those working in government offices, were accused of being Communists.


Europe —

  • Stalin broke the promise he made at the Yalta Conference of 1945 that he would let Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria have democratic elections by establishing Communist governments in all three. This was the beginning of tensions between the USSR and the US through the lens of communism and democracy.
  • There was an “Iron Curtain” as termed by Churchill which divided Europe in two
  • We joined the UN in 1945 to be active in world affairs, especially to combat Communism
  • In the Truman Doctrine of 1947, it was established that the United States would support democracies in order to deter the Communism that the Soviet Union was spreading in Europe. Although it began by referring only to Greece and Turkey, it was later accepted generally and became the basis for the American containment policy.
  • The Marshall Plan (1948) later passed to help economies of countries in Europe in order to fend off the Soviet Union’s potential attempts to spread Communism
  • We believed that a European country with a stronger economy was less likely to fall under the communist pressures exerted by the USSR
  • There were two Germanys divided both physically as well as ideologically, which was made a physical division by the Berlin Wall in 1961; the West was democratic and had American support
    • Blockade and airlift
      • “The Berlin Blockade was an attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany.”
      • US Response: “Berlin airlift, 1948–49, supply of vital necessities to West Berlin by air transport primarily under U.S. auspices. It was initiated in response to a land and water blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin.”
    • Led to NATO to establish collective security
  • We signed NATO in 1949 with Canada, Great Britain, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and Portugal
    • Greece, Turkey, and West Germany later joined
    • The alliance successfully strengthened defences against the Soviet Union
    • Strengthened our security and prevented us from reverting to being isolationist
    • Therefore, it was a success

Southeast Asia —

  • Much of SE Asia was becoming Communist-for example, Mao Zedong led the Chinese Revolution and turned it “red”. As Communism grew, we became more and more vigilant and anxious to deter it.
    • We sent the Nationalists 2 billion dollars to support their cause
    • No avail
  • We demilitarised/disarmed Japan
  • Korean War
    • Americans saw the North Korean attack as a Communist campaign that could continue all over the world, and thought to help to fight against them was to prevent the spread of Communism
    • “If we let Korea down, the Soviet[s] will keep right on going and swallow up one [place] after another.” –President Truman
    • Our war aims were that we wanted to free North Korea of Communism as well
    • In the end, there we were not able to make any gains for South Korea and the communist North stayed communist, and there was status antebellum, but we did succeed in stopping possible spread of communism from North Korea at the expense of countless lives
  • Vietnam War
    • North Vietnam was Communist, unlike South Vietnam, and so we entered on the side of the South
    • Domino Theory
    • Involvement seemed logical and there did not seem to be any reason to think we could not “win”. That we did not was a consequence of overestimating what U.S. power could accomplish and underestimating the will of the Vietnamese communists.
    • Was generally unpopular among the public, and we withdrew troops in 1973 (effectively surrendering)
    • 58,000 Americans were killed and South Vietnam lost, so the Communist North Korea (with support of the Viet Cong) took over and united Vietnam
    • Was a failure

Analysis —

  • There were better results in Europe than in Southeast Asia: rather than losing innumerable lives only to bear little fruit, we strengthened ties with other democracies and supported them so that USSR efforts would not be effective.
  • In Southeast Asia, there was more violence involved whereas European dealings are mostly treaties, agreements, and support networks (though there were still some conflicts). In both major wars in Southeast Asia, we did not emerge as clear winners although the loss of life and other costs were enormous.
  • In Southeast Asia, we overestimated our military power
  • For these reasons, it can be said that we succeeded in our policy of containment in Europe but failed in Southeast Asia

(3) While the U.S. appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950’s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of U.S. society made by TWO of the following:

Youth    Civil Rights Activists    Intellectuals

Synthesis: U.S. dominated by consensus due to prosperity during the 1920s but some Americans reacted against status quo by criticising America’s materialism (“Lost Generation”).

Contextualisation: Intellectuals rebelling against society (i.e.: Rachel Carson in “Silent Spring”). Until publication, few Americans knew about effects of pesticides on humans, plants, animals, etc and how they poisoned the environment. It warned of the dangers to all natural systems and questioned the direction of modern science.

Civil Rights Activists —

  • Jackie Robinson (first black MLB player) broke race barrier and triumphed despite racial abuse.
  • Truman, pressured by African-American supporters, ordered Executive Order 9981 which banned racial discrimination in the military and thus went against “Solid South’s” insistence on white supremacy.
  • Activists demanded perm FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission), outlawing of lynching, and poll tax
  • The FEPC was established in 1941 to enforce the order signed by Franklin Roosevelt that banned “discrimination in the employment of workers in defence industries or government because of race, creed, colour, or national origin.”
  • Thurgood Marshall helped end segregation in schools as Supreme Court ruled “separate but equal” (Plessy v Ferguson) unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. began civil rights crusade and advocated for justice but through nonviolent means in order to demonstrate evils of racism.
  • African Americans followed Dr. King and Rosa Park’s lead and boycotted segregated Montgomery buses and Supreme Court agreed by outlawing segregation on buses.

Youth —

  • Juvenile delinquency skyrocketed and embraced other “scandalous” activities like rock n’ roll.
  • Yet youth continued to listen to music and rock n’ roll sales skyrocketed thanks to the rise of Elvis Presley.
    • Rock and roll music dropped allusions to ideas such as disobedience and crime and was met with much opposition from older generations, calling the genre anything from “a plot to corrupt the youth” to “the devil’s music”
  • Beats (nonconformist writers) expressed revolt against middle-class society by scorning materialism and conformity.
  • Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Jack Kerouac’s On the Road showed disdain towards the conformity and materialism seen in the United States. They mocked the “square” America.
  • Students protested capital punishment and demonstrated against HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee). Others decried nuclear-arms race. (i.e.: in ’58-59, thousands participated in Youth Marches for Integrated Schools in Washington).
  • Salinger wrote “Catcher in the Rye”, a prominent book that was controversial due to it involving vulgar language, discussing sexuality in an open way, etc and thus sparked debate over censorship. However, it was applauded for showing a teenager’s alienation from the world and thus many saw Holden as a symbol of pure individuality in face of conformity imposed by society.

Because this is a complex theme, I will break away from the usual points system and just provide context and events in which case you need to determine what you need to write your essay.

(4) How do you account for the appeal of McCarthyism in the United States in the era following the Second World War?

Synthesis: First Red Scare

Contextualisation: Around the same time (the 1950s), a new wave of feminist and (especially) civil rights movements were starting to build. The US economy was the largest in the world. Communism also means fewer economic opportunities for the US which would limit capitalism expansion and many people were resentful because of that.


  • Origins
    • Red Scare
      • Reaction to the Bolshevik Revolution in the USSR and the emergence of Communism
      • Suspicions of leftist movements b/c of labor unrest, bombings attributed to unions and anarchists, and the incoming immigrants with socialist and anarchist ideas
      • Resulted in “aggressive Justice Department investigations, severe violations of civil liberties [Espionage and Sedition Acts], mass arrests and deportations, and several high-profile convictions”
  • Key Perpetrators
    • Dems vs Repubs
      • Dems have been in power for over a decade under FDR and the Repubs tried to link his New Deal with communist ideas while Dems fired back that the Repubs were linked with fascism. But during 1946 midterm elections, fascism is no longer a threat and by “red-baiting”, the Repubs managed to start winning back seats in Congress and also in the White House
    • FBI Under pressure for being soft on Communism, Prez Truman initiated a loyalty review program that FBI director J. Edgar Hoover presided over. With strong anti-communist views and loose standards of evidence, many people were accused without sufficient evidence. Hoover’s insistence on keeping sources secret meant that there was no way to verify the integrity of accusations and many didn’t know what they were being accused of or by whom. This apparent abundance of Communist sympathisers in the gov’t only fed into the fear of a Communist takeover of America.
    • HUAC (House Un-American Committee) conducted an investigation into Hollywood to see if their films secretly endorse communist ideas. The Hollywood elites have been supporting liberal policies and this was a way for conservatives to discredit them. Ten were singled out for resisting investigation by HUAC and tried before the House (the Hollywood Ten). All ten of them were cited for contempt of Congress and were either fired or suspended without pay (effectively blacklisted from Hollywood) by their company and jailed for one year.
      • This sort of attack on media figures saw the arrest of many writers, broadcast journalists, musicians, actors etc later on. It only intensified with the advent of Red Channels, a rightwing journal, that listed names of entertainers that were supposingly Communist. Red Channels had a lot of influence. People who were named lost their jobs and no one dared to hire them.
    • Sen. Richard Nixon Played a large role in the Alger Hiss Trial that helped reinstate the Republican majority in Congress that they had lost by 1948. The trial involved a gov’t official named Alger Hiss whose work primarily concerned liberal causes. A guy named Whittaker Chambers accused him of being a Communist. The HUAC held a hearing for Hiss and was satisfied with his presentation but Nixon pushed for deeper investigation. Information afterwards came out that Hiss had copies of official papers and in a later court case, he was convicted, giving Nixon and the Republican agenda a huge boost. With the success of the Alger Hiss Trial, Republicans pressured Truman and other Democrat officials into cracking down on communist sympathisers in the gov’t and suggested that Democrats were in league with Communists
    • Sen. Joseph McCarthy McCarthy gave his fateful speech Feb 9th 1950, where he claimed to have over 200 names of people who were “bad risks” working in the State Dept. When the gov’t denied such charges and demanded to see McCarthy’s source, McCarthy told them that he would let them see his list of names if they opened their loyalty files. In reality, he had an outdated list of names from previous investigations that were already known to the public but the public ate it up and bought into it, really believing that the State Dept had been filled with Communists. He used more outdated, biased and outright made-up information to sway people to his side and used his influence and his all-powerful list of names to get himself and his party more power by accusing more people. The media gobbled it up and printed headlines. This continued for four years.
      • Both Nixon and McCarthy were paranoid and insecure. They loved power and was very afraid that someone would take it away from them. These attributes would be part of the reason why they were driven to do all this.
  • Outside Threat
  • The military threat of the USSR along with the hostility between the US and the USSR meant that war had to be prepared for and the shoring up of the military, as a result, threatened the US
  • The takeover of western Europe by the USSR meant that people were disillusioned about the result of WWII, that is, the freeing of the people of Europe and this made people angry and afraid at the same time
  • The news of Russian spies surfaced (eg Elizabeth Bentley, who gave American intel to the USSR about Germany & Claus Fuchs, who leaked details of the Manhattan Project which helped to make the USSR a nuclear nation) to obvious result
  • Within months, the USSR successfully tested an atomic bomb (Aug 1949), the Chinese communists won their Civil War, forcing the (US-backed) Guomindang into modern Taiwan and instituted a communist gov’t in China (late 1949) and communist North Korea invaded South Korea (June 1950).
  • People feared the worst, that communism was spreading and can threaten their “democracy” or worse, their capitalism and contributed to the appeal of McCarthyism by giving them a physical enemy in front of them that they can accuse and attack for why Communism is spreading
  • Political Gain
    • The Republican party, though not as severe or flippant as McCarthy, nevertheless did nothing to stop his tirade. They allowed McCarthy to do their dirty work for them and they themselves took the high road and benefitted from the political gain.
    • The Democrats had both the presidency and Congress since 1930 and Republicans wanted a way to weaken them so the best way at the time was to sow suspicions that their more liberal policies meant that they sympathised with Communists.
    • This also gave Republicans the ground to attack progressive policies like the New Deal and connected them to Communism, also Truman’s various internal improvement plans were struck down in the same way

Summary: Basically, this threat of accusation was all-pervasive and God help you if you get accused and named in the Red Channels because your reputation will be ruined and no one will listen to you even if you don’t get convicted by the HUAC. The Republican Party used this to intimidate and discredit their opponents and one of the ways you can get immunity is to name more names. Any protestation against the govt was seen as being traitorous and if anyone dared propose reforms, then they were communistically-inclined and would be under suspicion and possibly accused. No one knew if and when their name would come up and no one knew who they could trust… Sounds Stalinesque, doesn’t it?

(5) Compare and contrast United States foreign policy after the First World War and after the Second World War. Consider the periods 1919-1928 and 1945-1950. 

Not much to compare so I chose to just say straight out that foreign policy changed a lot between the two time periods and focused on the changes.

Synthesis: George Washington’s Farewell Address establishes the precedent of remaining neutral and staying out of world affairs, isolationists who advocated for staying neutral after WWI supported this

Contextualisation: The Red Scare after WWI and McCarthyism after WWII – people became more increasingly afraid of communism and believed that the US had to intervene as a “policy of containment”, similar to the fear of foreign ideas during WWI


After WWI — 

  • Neutrality and Isolationism during the 20s and 30s – Americans had felt like WWI had been a mistake
  • International financing (Dawes and Young Plan for Germany)
  • Washington Naval Conference with Japan, Great Britain and France and Italy- an attempt to keep some power since the US was not part of the League of Nations
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact – wanted US help if Germany attacked France but the US didn’t want that. This act took 60 nations to not turn to war as a solution.

After WWII —

  • US becomes more involved in world affairs after WWII – as the founding member of the UN and participating in the Yalta Conference
  • More aggressive and intrusive
  • Truman Doctrine – the US would provide political, military, and economic assistance to other democratic countries that were threatened by communism
  • Cold War, Korean War – US supports democracy and comes to South Korea’s aid when North Korea invades (The US is an interventionist)
  • Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program)-try to keep countries from falling to Communism

APUSH Unit VIII Essay Prep: Early 1900s up to the Great Depression

(1) Compare and contrast the criticisms of American society in the 1920’s and 1930’s by American writers.

Synthesis:  Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Frederick Douglass’ slave narrative criticised the brutality of slavery through their literary works, both hoping to have an impact on the existence of slaves in America. Although both works wrote their stories in order to change the perspectives of Americans and shed light on the deplorable conditions of slavery, Douglass’ literary style was different than Beecher’s. He was able to recount his true story as a slave, while Beecher’s novel was fiction. Both authors were anti-slavery but approached the subject differently.  

Contextualisation: At the same time, artists, architects and musicians were also evolving their style — Joseph Stella’s The Bridge, Edward Hopper with Hopper, Dorothea Lange’s photos during the Great Depression, the shift from modern cubism to photography.



Writers attacked the materialism and the disillusionment that many Americans were enveloping themselves around. They disliked the new business culture of America. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels criticise the increasing of materialistic, self-absorbed views that the wealthy had. His books had characters that rejected traditional beliefs.

  • This Side of Paradise
  • The Great Gatsby is a literary novel that captures the glamorous party-filled life of the wealthy, but also how they tended to disregard those they considered below them on the social scale.

Sinclair Lewis criticised small-town America and how it limited individuality. Many of the people in his books were foolish men and women that chased after money.

  • Main Street, Babbitt, Arrowsmith, Elmer Gantry, and Dodsworth


  • Mencken attacked American values and considered them to be fools and stupid. Traditional Americans opposed his work.  
  • Hemingway’s work was about the war and the materialistic culture of the postwar years, love, struggle, courage, and loss.


To put it simply, 1920s writers wrote about materialism and the lavish lifestyles of the urban population and the greed that pervaded the culture at the time. During the 1930s, writers wrote about standing up for oneself and working hard and not relying on the politicians to do anything for them because they’re not. They tried to reject traditional values in order to make people pave their own roads instead of following the institutions. The 1930s also saw more attention and criticism of the areas outside of urban centers for their complacency and inability to adapt to present difficulties.

(2) Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following New Deal measures attempted to fashion a more stable economy and a more equitable society.

Agricultural Adjustment Act                         The Securities and Exchange Commission

Wagner Labor Relations Act                           Social Security Act

Synthesis: The Affordable Care Act (2010)

Contextualisation: Social Security Act (1935)


Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA, 1933):

  • Protected farmers from price drops by providing crop subsidies in hopes of reducing production and educational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion
    • Subsidy came from a tax that was later declared unconstitutional, resulting in the second act
    • Evens balance of supply and demand
      • So that farmers only produce what the consumers can buy and not excess
  • Second Act set a parity price, and the government pays the difference if the farmers did not make at least that much
    • Essentially (in both) the government was paying farmers not to grow crops on a part of their land (the Domestic Allotment Plan)
      • Solves deflation caused by surplus of products
  • Improved economy:
    • solving deflation (see above)
    • Farmers would use their higher wages to buy consumer goods, which helps the economy overall
  • Improved society:  farming is now profitable
    • Makes society fairer because people have an equal opportunity

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, 1934):

  • Regulated stock market and restricted margin buying
  • Protects people from fraud in stock market
  • Wanted accurate financial statements→ FASB
    • Financial Accounting Standards Board
  • Improved economy: curtailed dangerous practices like buying on margin
  • Improved society: helped to start to regain people’s confidence in the stock market, and makes it safer for consumers to buy stock

(3) How did TWO of the following help shape American national culture in the 1920’s?

Advertising    Mass Production     Entertainment 

Synthesis: The 1950s  – both periods after World Wars, inventions of new technologies for the common consumer (radios in the 1920s, TV in the 1950s), magazines and media influenced American culture, economies were doing well in both times due to the war

Contextualisation: Advertising – glorified consumer spending, the value of a person depended on what they had: having things were more important that social character, religion, morals; companies wanted to sell more and targeted women (household appliances, makeup, promoted the idea of women drinking and smoking)



  • Movies: silent films, Nickelodeon (Clara Bow – The “It” Girl, Charlie Chaplin)
  • Radio – radio shows – “Amos ‘n Andy”, Presidents could address the American audience directly over radio, 60% of American families had radios
  • Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance – help establish the African American identity in America. (Louis Armstrong, Jacob Lawrence, Alain Locke’s The New Negro)
  • Literary works by Fitzgerald, Sinclair, Hemingway, Stein (The Lost Generation) – commentary on life in the 20s (America’s materialism and modernism), post-war cynicism
  • Impacts:
  • changing views of women (flappers, smoking, drinking, open sexuality)
  • deviation from the secular, traditional lifestyle;
  • promoted a culture of consumption and buying (after WWI where people willingly rationed)

Mass Production

  • Consumer products became more widely available and more affordable – changed home life (refrigerators, washing machines, cars)
  • Changed the household life with labor saving machines doing work which allowed more leisure time
  • Impact on Workers:
  • They became less skilled, with more machines being able to do the work and assembly lines requiring they do one task.
  • Decline of labor union membership and the need for cheap labor

(4) Historians have argued that Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. Evaluate this statement with respect to TWO of the following.

Regulation of business   Labor   Immigrants

Synthesis:  Reconstruction

Contextualisation: Immigrants from East Asia came into the US in bigger numbers, prompting backlash because of unfamiliar culture and language barrier.


  • Regulation of Business:
    • Reforms before the 1920s
      • Trust-breaking (Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
      • Quality Regulation (Pure Food & Drug, Meat Inspection etc)
      • Reduction of Tariffs (notably Underwood Tariff), less protection for US companies
      • WWI wartime regulation of businesses (War Industries Board)
    • After 1920s
      • Implication of regulating businesses as being communist or socialist (in light of the Red Scare and WWI)
      • Economic boom discouraged any sort of checking power (Calvin Coolidge:“The business of America is business. The man who builds a factory builds a temple. The man who works there worships there.”)
      • Inventions (assembly line) exploded production and lowered prices and encouraged consumerism meaning businesses grew even bigger than what they were before therefore harder to control
      • Harding, Coolidge and Hoover were all hands-off presidents (Hoover himself was a businessman, owning silver mines. Fun fact: He and wife spoke Mandarin if they didn’t want to get eavesdropped on.)
      • Harding Administration’s corruption (Teapot Dome) meant that gov’t officials were often willing to look the other way if they got a little something under the table in return
      • Skyrocketing tariffs (eg Hawley-Smoot Tariff; highest peacetime tariff ever)
  • Labor:
    • Before 1920s
      • Regulation of wages, hours and condition by state governments
      • Incidents like the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire brought awareness to both the long hours and unsafe conditions
        • Prompted the creation of regulatory institutions (New York State Factory Commision etc)
      • Stopped the use of Sherman Anti-Trust against strikers
      • Roosevelt performed the first go-between to resolve issues between owner and workers
      • Roosevelt and Wilson made their own headways into the issue
      • Headed by socialist-leaning reformers like Eugene Debs (who was a socialist)
      • Unions with widespread influence (Gomper’s AFL)
    • After 1920s
      • Renewed image of labor unions as communist and socialist, were seen as un-American
      • “Welfare Capitalism”, providing services to employees to stop the formation of independent labor unions (notable example being Henry Ford taking advantage of this by sponsoring stuff like sports teams, cafeterias, glee clubs and formed groups representing women, blacks and immigrants)
      • Open-shop movement- required people to work in nonunion places
      • Yellow dog contract–where the worker has to agree not to join a union
      • Gov’t started trying to break up unions again and struck down labor laws
        • 1922-federal troops broke up a railroad strike (The Great Railroad Strike of 1922)
        • Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company (1922) struck down federal law regulating child labor  
        • Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923) struck down minimum wage law for women in Washington D.C.
        • Supreme Court weakened labor provisions of Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) in 1921 and 1927

(5) Compare and contrast the ways that many Americans expressed their opposition to immigrants in the 1840s–1850s with the ways that many Americans expressed their opposition to immigrants in the 1910s–1920s.

Synthesis: BRACERO Program against Mexican immigrants

Contextualisation: Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)



  • Anti-immigration Attitudes
    • Ethnic neighbourhoods were seen with suspicion, poverty, crime
    • Immigrants inherently inferior to “real” Americans
    • Immigrants steal jobs from honest Americans
    • Whigs complained that immigrants (who were overwhelmingly Dems) would corrupt the political process
    • Taxpayers would have to pay for programs that would support immigrants and that wasn’t fair because the immigrants aren’t paying for themselves.
  • The Irish were targeted (in particular in Boston where some places put up “No Irish Need Apply” signs, seen as non-white, were looked down on for being a drinking culture
  • A lot of immigrant groups were Catholic and anti-Catholic views mixed with anti-immigrant prejudice
  • Nativism
    • 1850s-The American Party
      • 1854-membership at one-and-a-half million
      • Supported extension of period for naturalisation from 5 to 21 years; ban on naturalised citizens’ holding of public office
      • Declined in 1856 when divided over slavery question
      • Accused immigrants of plotting with Catholics to overthrow U.S. democracy
  • Germans were better off being better educated, financially stable and settled further West in more sparsely populated areas
  • Chinese
    • 1854 People vs. Hall (California Supreme Court)- extended a previous law saying non-whites can’t testify against whites to the Chinese
    • 1855 & 8-California passed laws stopping Chinese immigration, overturned by SCOTUS
  • Mexicans also saw discrimination, especially as more Anglos moved into the annexed Texas and the far West


  • Progressives did not want more immigrants as they thought  that would increase economic problems  
  • World War I propaganda influenced American’s views on Germans that they were barbaric. (anti-German and anti-Irish)
  • Red Scare – linked socialism and radicalism with immigrants (Palmer Raids – revealed the fear for foreign ideas and immigrants in the government)
  • Sacco and Vanzetti – foreign-born anarchists (reinforced the idea that immigrants were radicals), they were executed despite little proof for their crimes.
  • The KKK came back – reinforced the ideas of white supremacy; had power in the Democratic Party; supported violence against Jews, Blacks, and other immigrants who got jobs or didn’t assimilate to American culture
  • Ozawa v US (1922) and US v Thind (1923) – Japanese, Indian, and Asian immigrants couldn’t assimilate and were unable to obtain citizenship
  • Hidemitsu v. the US — Japanese were rejected naturalisation for being “alien” racially and ethnically
  • National Origins Act of 1924- showing discrimination toward immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and excluded Asians.- Coolidge said America must be kept American.

(6) Analyze the origins and outcomes of the intense cultural conflicts of the 1920s. In your response, focus on TWO of the following.

Immigration   Prohibition   Religion

Synthesis: 1960s

Contextualisation: Prohibition

  • Temperance movement originally began with the 2nd Great Awakening but there was revival of its importance now
  • WCTU was part of the temperance movement
  • Anti-Saloon League
  • However, in 1920s culture, there was much bootlegging and illegal acts and the Amendment did not stop it — impossible to enforce


Immigration conflict

  • Origins
    • Increase in immigration before 1920
    • Generally poor
    • Prior nativism
    • Progressives thought that fewer immigrants means better off public
  • Outcomes
    • Discrimination continues
    • KKK expanded
      • Wants 100% Americanism
      • Violence
      • Preserve America as a “white” nation
    • Emergency Quota Act
      • 35700 immigrants/year is maximum
    • Ozawa v. the US — Japanese so racially different/inferior that they cannot get citizenship
    • Hidemitsu v US- Japanese cannot be naturalised
    • US Border Patrol was established in 1925 to decrease Mexican immigration too

Religion conflict

  • Origins
    • The Fundamentals – influenced people to return to literal interpretations while others persisted with metaphorical interpretations
    • More against Catholics and Jews
  • Outcomes
  • Fundamentalism movement
    • Literal interpretation
    • Response to beliefs during changes in 1920s lifestyle
    • William Jennings Bryan was leader of it
  • Some Southern states don’t want to teach evolution
    • Scopes Trial
    • Shows general discontent about religion

APUSH Unit VII Essay Prep: Early 1900s up to WWI (1890-19

Once again, a couple of questions have been left out because of incomplete information.

(1) How successful were progressive reforms during the period 1890-1915 with respect to TWO of the following?

Industrial Conditions   Urban life   Politics

Synthesis: Reforms after 2nd Great Awakening: women & temperance (these two are similar to Progressive reforms that resulted in the 18th and 19th amendments)

Contextualisation: Politics- Removing party corruption, the idea of the Secret Ballot – but did not include many immigrants, 17th and 19th Amendment


Industrial Conditions

  • Square Deal
    • Conservation of natural resources, controlling corporations, protecting consumers
    • Roosevelt = “trust buster”
    • Elkins Act→ makes rebates from railroads to companies (like Standard Oil) illegal
    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act(1890) & Clayton Anti-Trust Act (Clayton was passed under Wilson in 1914)
      • Restrict trusts and help consumers
      • Clayton strengthens Sherman – not to be used vs labor unions, more specific, etc
      • Northern Securities Case
        • 1902- Roosevelt attacked the Northern Securities Company, a railroad holding company organised by financial titan J. P. Morgan and empire builder James J. Hill (they sought to achieve a virtual monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest); Court held up Roosevelt’s antitrust suit and ordered the company to be dissolved
        • Angered big business, but greatly enhanced Roosevelt’s reputation as a trust buster
        • Under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • The Jungle→ Meat Inspection Act
    • “Hit America in the stomach instead of the heart”
    • Reforming the meat industry and making it more sanitary
    • Pure Food and Drug Act
      • “For preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.”
  •  Triangle Shirtwaist Company → NY reforms
    • Workplace disaster→ Inspired reforms in NY by Florence Kelley and Frances Perkins to better conditions for women

Urban Life

  • How the Other Half Lives-Jacob Riis
  • Crowded and unsanitary/disease- slums and tenements
  • inspired President Roosevelt to close the worst of the lodging houses and city officials to reform and enforce the city’s housing policies
  • His book shed light on the deplorable conditions that the underclass lived in
  •  Jane Addams and Hull House→ Settlement houses
    • Opened doors to newly arrived immigrants
    • Good conditions
  •  Sewage improvement– more efficient infrastructure and tech (like modern toilets)
  • Air pollution concern begins to show—
    • Women also played a pivotal role in the antipollution movement of the Progressive Era. Alice Hamilton increased public awareness of toxic chemicals and their health effects. The Settlement House movement, led by women like Jane Addams, worked to better city services and conditions within immigrant neighborhoods. Smoke pollution also greatly concerned women at this time. Reacting to their increased laundry load in filthy conditions, as well as concerns about their husbands’ and children’s health, women dramatically altered the general public’s conceptions of smoke. Up to this time, many had conceived of smoke as either a disinfectant or the necessary cost of progress. Women educated their fellow citizens on the health dangers of smoke, and their activism led to smoke-pollution-control laws in every major city in the United States by 1912. Men took control of this issue within legislative circles, stressing technology as a way to reduce smoke or burn the coal more efficiently.”  (taken from http://www.pollutionissues.com/Pl-Re/Progressive-Movement.html#ixzz4a09PCJfW)
      • Though this was not as successful in terms of reforms, it marked the beginning of concern of air pollution
    •  Environmental standards were passed and in general, awareness was raised
    • Parks were made to help preserve natural resources

(2)  Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

Synthesis: Washington and Adams: Washington’s Farewell Address emphasised the need for to stay out of foreign affairs versus Adams who was involved with the XYZ Affair and the Quasi-War. Both George Washington and John Adams emphasised the need to stay out of foreign affairs by wanting to follow the same non-intervention policies and circumstances; however, Adams had difficulty maintaining the same neutrality as Washington.

Contextualisation: You can compare and contrast how each president approached domestic issues differently. Wilson went after the institutions while Roosevelt personally went in to solve problems. An example of be Wilson’s passing of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 compared to Roosevelt’s handling of the Northern Securities Case



  • Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japan would stop Japanese immigration to America if Roosevelt got rid of segregation against them in schools
  • Big Stick diplomacy: the use of military force to intimidate other countries
  • Roosevelt Corollary: gave US the right to intervene in Latin American politics if their international debts weren’t paid
  • Panama Canal: exploit Pacific/Asian markets through invasion of Panama
  • China’s Open Door Policy: opens free trade in Asia and basically subjugates the Chinese into letting foreigners have free reign within swathes of their territory


  • Fourteen Points/League of Nations: advocated for free trade, open seas, open treaties
  • “Make the world safe for democracy”
  • Moral Diplomacy (ex. the US supporting democratic Latin American countries)
  • Wilson had tried to stay neutral until the Zimmerman Telegram – cause Wilson to propose war to Congress the next day


  • Roosevelt’s policies tended to lean toward the economic benefits. Wilson’s foreign policy was dominated by WW1, focusing more on alliances and negotiating the end of the war versus Roosevelt’s economic foreign policies.
  • Wilson was more of an idealist, while Roosevelt was more aggressive in his policies (ex: sending the US Navy around the world known as the “Great White Fleet; also as Secretary of Navy under McKinley, Roosevelt wanted to engage with Spain in the Philippines)
  • Both Presidents wanted to establish America as a world power and advance the nation
  • Both were progressives and encouraged federal intervention the economy and in their opinion, saw that Congress was incompetent in the matters of foreign policy

(3) Assess the relative influence of TWO of the following in the American decision to declare war on Germany in 1917.

German naval policy                     American economic interests

Woodrow Wilson’s idealism          Allied propaganda

Synthesis: War of 1812- caused due to the British attempts to seize  American ships made Jefferson believe that British were trying to restrict American trade with Napoleon.

Contextualisation: Wilson’s Idealism– He believed that the war had to be ended, in order for their to be peace in the world and in his war address to Congress he said: “ the world must be made safe for democracy.” Example: His Fourteen Points and within it, the League of Nations.


German Naval Policy

  • The sinking of the Lusitania, Arabic and the Sussex led to innocent Americans dying and it showed how Germany had no qualms about sinking ships without warning, even if they held no contraband (Sussex Pledge)
  • Germany announced resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare (they knew they would lose the war without it, and were willing to risk America entering. They were suffering from the British naval blockade)
  • Zimmerman Telegram (which the British made public in hopes of persuading America to enter the war)
  • German naval policy and their constant promising to no longer harm passenger ships, only to go against their word and torpedo ships, made it difficult for America to remain neutral

American economic interests

  • U.S. had loaned hundreds of millions of dollars to the Allies (more than the Germans, so it would benefit them more if the Allied Powers won)
  • Wall Street supported the war (selling of arms)
  • Congress supported the war because it benefited the economy
  • (could include how some believed America was becoming imperialist/capitalist & how the wealthy were gaining more wealth and becoming richer while the American government exploited people)
  • Debs said that the United States were “tyrants, autocrats, red-handed robbers and murders… disloyalists and traitors ”- Ohio State convention of the Socialist Party.
    • He believed that the United States was under plutocratic rule, interested in capitalism, imperialism, exploiting people and causing war to make money.

(4) Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the 1880s through 1920. Focus your essay on TWO of the following.

I didn’t include it, but remember to analyse like what it says in the question.

Politics    Social conditions    Labor and working conditions

Synthesis: Industrial Revolution

Contextualisation: The social change within the era. For example, the flapper culture and increasing independence of women from the sphere of the home.


Labor and Working Conditions

  • Women in the Knights of Labor– wanted equal pay
    • Two women were leaders in the Knights of Labor: Leonora Barry, the general investigator for women’s work, and Elizabeth Rogers, head of the Chicago Knights assembly.
    • 10% of members = women
    • Not allowed in AFL
  • National Consumers League of 1890- concerned with improving working and living conditions of women in the workplace
  • Muller v. Oregon: protecting women and children in workforce
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in 1911: girls worked 12hrs/day in cramped place and because emergency supplies weren’t right, they died in the fire
    • Inspired reforms in NY by Florence Kelley and Frances Perkins to better conditions for women


  • Men still dominated politics but women were advancing
  • Western states had started to grant women suffrage in local elections (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho had done it late 1800s and even more states were catching on)
  • There were a few female Muckrakers — Ida Tarbell, Francis Keller, Helen Hunt Jackson
    • Ida Tarbell- exposed corrupt Rockefeller oil industry
    • Francis Keller- as above
    • Helen Hunt Jackson- wrote A Century of Dishonor
  • Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    • Advocated social reform in favour of temperance
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
    • Advocated for the right to vote
  • 19th Amendment ratified in 1920
  • Women’s Peace Party 1915
    • By Jane Addams & Carrie Chapman Catt

(5) Analyze the impact of technological innovations on the lives of TWO of the following groups. Confine your answer to the period 1865–1920.

Only had the synthesis and contextualisation points for this one.

Factory workers    Middle-class urban residents    Midwestern farmers

Synthesis: The modern information age and everything that entails.

Contextualisation: Farmers — Allowed for commercial farming by reducing the tiresome, hard work on the farms. The railroads that were connected to markets in the East also helped farmers in giving them a bigger market to sell their produce. It negatively impacted them by causing them to have more debt from bank loans and overproduction; and led to the emergence of the Populist movement. (If you’re good, you can connect the Panic of 1893 to some of the disadvantages of technology during this time period.)

Here’s the link to the CollegeBoard page for this prompt.

APUSH Unit VI Essay Prep: Civil War, Reconstruction and Beyond (1860s-1900s)

Sorry for the late post guys, but here’s the next round of essay prep.

(1) Compare and contrast the attitudes of TWO of the following toward the wealth that was created in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

I chose Andrew Carnegie and Eugene V. Debs. If you chose other people, you have to look elsewhere for question 1.

Andrew Carnegie   Eugene V. Debs   Horatio Alger      Edward Bellamy

Synthesis: Andrew Jackson, his view towards wealth and the wealthy and his Jacksonian Democracy

Contextualisation: You can use the other two that you didn’t use. For example, Horatio Alger was a writer at the time and he wrote a lot of rags-to-riches type of narratives where he emphasised hard work and believed that perseverance was the key to success.


  • Carnegie-
    • Came from a poor immigrant background and rose rather quickly through the ranks to become the richest man in the world at a young age
    • “Gospel of Wealth”-believed strongly in philanthropy but through the lens of a “superior intellect.
    • Thought that people who were less economically gifted were less intelligent and has little knowledge in how to invest money and has little chance of improving (Social Darwinism)
    • Gave his right-hand man, Henry Clay Frick the approval to “anything you do” that resulted in the Homestead Strike in the summer of 1892 (10 people dead).
    • Said to be a friend of the working man, but by today’s standards, he would be guilty of ethics and conduct violations
      • The reason for the Homestead Strike which was because of a 30% reduction of wages despite hard working hours and dangerous conditions
      • Steelwork accidents were responsible for 20% of men’s’ deaths during the 1880s in Pittsburgh
    • Believed in helping the community at large (same as Debs) but also believed in things like predestination except it’s for wealth and not salvation
  • Eugene V. Debs-
    • Organised the Pullman Strike elicited federal response (should have gone over that in class in great detail)
    • After the failure of the Pullman Strike, he turned to socialism which meant:
      • He became the father of American socialism
      • Was a strong believer in the communist model of economy
    • His Pullman Strike was a response to several measures the Pullman company had implemented in order to lower expenses to the company, including lowering wages while maintaining the same prices for goods
    • Instead of funding public institutions like Carnegie, he believed in directly giving benefits to the working people
    • Came from a modest background too
    • Believed that the concentration of wealth in the top few was unfair and ill-gained and wanted the gov’t to take control and redistribute wealth
    • Fun fact: was so popular that he ran for prez from a jail cell during WWI and got a little less than a million votes

(2) Evaluate the relative importance and impact of any TWO of the following on the American industrial worker between 1865 and 1900.
Government Actions   Labor Unions   Immigration   Technological Changes

Synthesis: Immigration (Irish and German) to the US in the 1840’s

Contextualization: Gov’t actions in response to labor strikes (e.g. Pullman Strike was put down by US federal troops)

I said that immigration was more impactful so keep that in mind when reading my points. Remember to address relative importance in your own essay.


  • Immigration
    • They were a form of cheap labor- factory owners turned to the unskilled immigrant workers for their muscle needed in factories, mills, railroads and places where heavy-construction was needed.
    • New groups of immigrants came from East Europe as well as Asia, fanning hostilities towards these immigrants because they were thought to be stealing jobs from “Americans” (a lot of them were second-generation migrants) and also friction because of differences in culture and cultural values (
      • The Chinese by the 1850s
      • Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles came by the 1880s
    • Although they worked long hours, only to be able to save little money, it was more than they would have earned at home.
    • Women were unskilled laborers in textile mills but mill jobs gave them a degree of independence
    • The influx of immigrants meant that negotiating for conditions and wages with their employers were difficult because there was always a fresh supply of laborers who were willing to work for less favourable working conditions
    • Employers asserted that the workers did not deserve the same pay as native-born American.
    • Native-born Americans feared the loss of privileges and status that were associated with their white skin color and began to stigmatise immigrants as racially different and inferior even when they were of the same race (e.g. incoming Western Europeans)
    • blamed Chinese migrants for undercutting prevailing wage levels
    • Conclusion: Immigration was part of the reason why the economy after the 1850s (at least, in the North and the Midwest) grew and this set the stage for the upcoming Industrial Revolution so immigration was good for the country overall. However, for the individual unskilled industrial worker, immigration was detrimental to their campaign for higher wages and better working conditions.
  • Technological Changes
    • Sewing Machine- made the textile industry viable for industrialisation
    • 1879-Edison’s light bulb, as well as the advent of electricity, meant that indoor places could be lit and introduced the concept of night shifts and lengthened work hours
    • The conversion to a more industrial-based economy who used more efficient methods to make products also meant that consumer goods would become cheaper and mass-produced.
    • On the other hand, innovations like the Bessemer process that makes things cheaper to produce and need less skill to produce means that skilled labor no was no longer in high demand and that opened up the room for lower wages for unskilled laborers.
      • This helped the facilitation of women and child workers into factories.

(3) Analyze the economic consequences of the Civil War with respect to any TWO of the following in the United States between 1865 and 1900.

Agriculture   Transportation   Industrialization    Labor

I added a bit about the Panic of 1893 in my essay. You don’t have to but if you’re looking for long-term economic impact, the Panic will do quite nicely.

Synthesis: Columbian Exchange and Native American conflicts in the colonial period

Contextualisation: You can use one of the other two choices for context. For me, I used industrialisation.


  • Agriculture-
    • New inventions- self-binding harvesters, better irrigation systems,
      • Simplified farming, needed less human labor, brought prices down
      • Fewer people were in agriculture and many went to urban areas to find jobs
    • Helped supply the growing number of people in cities and people moving to cities in search of work
    • 1864-Dept of Agric. made to control land use, gave info to farmers about getting the best yields etc in the 1880s
    • Made food much cheaper but also lessened the profits, meaning the rise of the idea of the silver standard(part of what caused the Panic) and hostility against the railroad monopolists who thought were “fixing” the prices of their produce
    • Cheaper prices made farmers more dependent on cash crops like wheat, which had dire consequences when wheat crops failed and their prices crashed in 1893 and were partially responsible for the Panic of the same year.
  • Transportation-
    • Were taken advantage of by the Union to gain the upper hand over the less developed South
    • Transcontinental RR Act of 1862- “An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes.”
    • Made rapid expansion into the West possible(railways), urged on by propaganda, many people went West to take advantage of the Homestead Act(1862), especially immigrants from European countries
    • The availability of jobs working for railroad companies attract many Chinese immigrants
    • The Chinese often worked the land to make it fit for railroads (read: exploding things and sometimes themselves) and were ideal workers b/c they didn’t complain and didn’t drink
    • This rapid expansion west meant people needed a source of livelihood and since many specialised in only one crop to make money, this put them at the mercy of railroads and international market fluctuations (once again, the Panic of 1893)
    • efficiency of transportation -> farmers can compete in the international market, power to the rail lords and efficiency of farming tools-> more produce, less labor, more influence from international market->overproducing and lack of jobs for farm hands->economic downturn for farmers ->Sherman Silver Purchase Act(undermined the value of American gold and caused withdrawal of economic investment from foreign nations) and wheat failure->Panic of 1893

(4)  For whom and to what extent was the American West a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1900?

Synthesis: Jeffersonian Gov’t and the Louisiana Purchase opened up many opportunities to many demographics

Contextualisation: Land of opportunities? Not for the Native Americans!


  • The railroads were awarded millions of acres of land (profited a lot during this time period)
    • This helped transport many immigrants and Americans
    • Had a positive effect on cattle dealers and agriculture
    • Railroads used land sales in hopes of attracting people to the West, so this made land available to single women and they were able to establish farms
    • The railroad helped both farmers and cattle dealers compete in the market. They profited well in times of high demand (farmers benefited to a certain extent-b/c railroads did charge them more at times for transporting their goods)
  •  In Wyoming, single women made up more than 18% of the claimants
    • New state governments also supported women’s suffrage
  •  Immigrants became laborers for the railroads or started farming, and were able to claim land (Homestead Act)
    • Many immigrants formed communities
  •  For immigrants and Americans looking for financial gain, opportunities were plentiful as America expanded its frontiers and the people began to look for ways to colonise the rest of the continent in hopes of making an independent living away from the cities and farms of the East.

(5) Following Reconstruction, many southern leaders promoted the idea of a “New South.” To what extent was this “New South” a reality by the time of the First World War? In your answer be sure to address TWO of the following.

Economic development   Politics   Race relations

Synthesis: The South’s efforts to resist the fruits of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.

Contextualisation: I used the remaining option above, which was economic development. The fact that the South was still largely agricultural and was still way behind the North in terms of production and technological advancement meant that the New South wasn’t happening.


  • Race Relations-
    • New South was obviously a euphemism for the reestablishment of white supremacy
      • Henry Grady’s “New South” foresaw a South that would shed its agricultural trappings in favor of industrialisation for a more diversified economy as well as the reestablishment of white conservatives to power and everything else that entails.
    • Blacks were expected to be deferential to whites
    • The freedmen were making the most out of their situation and a lot of them were successful and saw many of them join the professional middle class
      • That, in turn, made the whites resent them and they feared that the black community would grow to be more powerful and gain an important role in politics
    • Most labor unions excluded black people
    • Civil Rights Cases(1883) declared Civil Rights Act(1875), which prohibited segregation in public places, unconstitutional
    • Jim Crow laws passed by southern states (the 1880s and 1890s)
    • Other Court Cases
      • Plessy vs Ferguson(1896)-”separate but equal”
      • Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899)-segregated schools
    • Black schools were not as well-funded as white schools, and many other institutions under “separate but equal” was definitely not equal
    • For comparison and context: 90% of the US’s black population lived in the South in 1900
    • White peoples’ lament over the “Old South” and the idea of “happy slaves” came up again and legitimised everything they were doing to undo Lincoln’s work
  • Politics-
    • Once again, very solidly Democratic white voters
    • Because of ^, the local gov’t was controlled by Democrats and the South soon saw the effects:
    • The rise of redeemer gov’ts that put power back into racist white hands
    • Reduced spending on public institutions but especially ones that benefitted the black community
    • Blacks still voted from 1877 to 1914 but saw many restrictions placed on their voting rights
      • Poll taxes that prevented the poorer minority from voting
      • Older generation former slaves often could not read and they made literacy tests mandatory in order to vote
      • State gov’t passed plenty of laws to disenfranchise black voters like the Grandfather Clause(1898) (if your grandfather could vote before 1967, then you could skip the poll and taxes, giving poor illiterate white men the ability to vote–1867 was the year that black people were guaranteed suffrage, was overturned in 1915)
      • 1900: Senate “vetoed” Lodge Bill that would have allowed the national gov’t to preside over elections, which the South obviously did not want
    •  Saw the rise of a lot of black organisations but a lot of times, white people tried to stop them from achieving their goals (ie Colored Farmers’ National Alliance’s attempt at a strike in 1891 but was “circumvented” by white landowners and local authorities). This sort of brick wall against civil rights helped contribute to the Great Migration during WWI.

(6) Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in TWO of the following regions.

North   South   West

Didn’t finish this one so I only have the synthesis and the contextualisation.

Synthesis: Impact of the Revolutionary War on the North vs the South

Contextualisation: Western expansion after the Civil War offered chances for more opportunities (see Question 4) and this brought the West back to national attention politically. The gov’t issued legislation that helped to develop the West (economic) and also handed down decisions to deal with problems of trade and private business (political).

Here’s a link to the AP Central page for this question (scroll down to page 12).

APUSH Unit V Essay Prep: The Civil War to the Early 1900s

The 1860 Political Party

I have just three for this unit that are complete. The other three weren’t finished and I only got synthesis points for them so I’m not going to put them on here.

(1) Analyse the social, political, and economic forces of the 1840s and early 1850s that led to the emergence of the Republican Party.

Synthesis: Any other political party system could be this although I went for the Federalist party.

Contextualization: Dred Scott case


  • Social:
    • ” wave of consciousness” by which I mean the realisation that black people are actually people (gasp)
      • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Frederick Douglas’s efforts (including his book, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas)
    • Slave Power conspiracy- that an unproportionately small number of wealthy slaveholders has control of state gov’ts and is trying to take over the fed. gov’t
    • North’s feeling of superiority over South (lower rate of illiteracy, more developed industry and tech. etc) equals proof of the evils of slavery->argued for by Helper’s The Impending Crisis of the South but the rhetoric was purely in self-interest
    • Abolitionistic (and more moralistic) sentiments from the Second Great Awakening
    • Result: Turned Northerners from slavery and the South, naturally aligned with the Republicans’ views, Repubs also took in the fallout after the K-N Act killed the Whig party, taking on their values
  • Political:
    • Repeal of Missouri Compromise through the Nebraska-Kansas Act (one of the main catalysts to the formation of the Republican Party and it’s what undid the Whig parties)
      • Led to the disagreeable Lecompton Constitution in Kansas, Bleeding Kansas (“border ruffians, Missouri savages), encouraged by John Brown at Harpers Ferry
    • Also the Compromise of 1850 (Northerners especially tried to hinder attempts to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act, should be mentioned before the Kansas-Nebraska Act)
    • Whigs made way for the party because of divisions between Conscience Whigs and Cotton Whigs cause downfall of said party (can also be used for contextualization)
    • Result: Made slavery possible in territories and made Southern influences known in the North (Dred Scott and Fugitive Slave Act)->North resented it->slave power conspiracy->support for Republican Party
  • Economic:
  • Republican economic ideology fit Northern standards->free labor, slavery degraded honest labor, social mobility, equal opportunities for all etc etc
  • Republican platform of internal improvements and protective tariffs naturally appealed to Northern economic interest (you can include the National Banking Act here but make it clear that it occurred in the 1860s)
  • Republican promise to offer cheap land (led to the Homestead Act but you have to include the fact that it’s after the 1850s, 1862)
  • Mildly anti-immigrant (partially from the absorbed Know-Nothings) which matched northern sentiments at the time
  • Result: Republican Party had a very northern economic turn to it and that attracted a lot of followers (which is all-important because the North contained the winning number of electoral votes). Including how a lot of these policies are similar to what the Whigs were pushing is also a good idea.

(2) Analyze the effectiveness of political compromise in reducing sectional tensions in the period 1820-1861.

I recommend saying that while the earlier compromises were pretty effective, but as time went on, the later compromises became less and less effective.

Synthesis: 3/5th Compromise

Contextualization: You can us what inflamed the sectional tensions in the first place, Western expansion. You can expand on what made people want to move West and what policies made Western expansion possible etc etc.


  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
    • Maintains balance of slave and free states (Missouri as slave, Maine as free)
    • Drew the 36 30 line prohibiting slavery above it
    • Kept relative peace for 30 years
  • Compromise Tariff of 1833
    • Gov’t’s answer to the nullification crisis (South Carolina) over the Tariff of Abominations (1828)
    • Southern states extremely unhappy because the tariff favoured North and made things more expensive for the South
    • The new Tariff would reduce tariffs gradually to 1816 levels
    • Ended the Crisis
  • Compromise of 1850
    • Failed as the Omnibus Bill
    • Stephen Douglas passes through individual parts-2 relevant points:
      • Admitted California as free state(tipped the balance of free vs slave states)
      • Fugitive Slave Act(unpopular among Northerners, often ignored)
    • Was effective in the immediate timeframe, however, it introduced the concept of popular sovereignty which = disaster->N-K Act & Bleeding Kansas and the main objection of the Republican Party->President Lincoln->Civil War
  • Nebraska-Kansas Act (1854)
    • Was designed to appeal to both North and South in giving a terr.’s residents to choose if they become pro or anti slavery (& opened a railroad route to West)
    • Repealed Missouri Compromise-Northerners, specifically Republicans (<ree soilers) hated it
    • Major catalyst in the formation of Republican party (party formed same year)
    • Compromise was dead
  • Then, you have Crittenden which just failed… miserably.

(3) Evaluate the extent to which the Mexican-American War (1846–1848) marked a turning point in the debate over slavery in the United States, analysing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the war to the period after it.

Synthesis: Missouri Compromise of 1829

Contextualization: The belief in Manifest Destiny and how that played into the War


  • Before:
    • Manifest Destiny as being the main cause for the M-A War (Prez Polk)
    • Missouri Compromise having solved the slavery question
      • Maintain balance of free vs slave states
      • Clearly marked out slave and non-slave land
    • Manifest Destiny and the Missouri Compromise kept tensions in check. Say also that since slavery was legal, abolitionists had only moral arguments. After the war, a new target emerged: slavery in the territories (which, of course, renewed the debate over slavery).
    • Gag rule effectively kept Congress from acting on the slavery question (1836)
    • Fred Douglas and Garrison’s Liberator gave renewed vigor to abolitionists to no result
  • During and After:
    • Whigs start dividing over the War (northern Whigs opposed it)
    • More persistent anti-slavery efforts (broke gag rule)
      • Wilmot Proviso (1846-48)
      • Popular Sovereignty (a break from Missouri Compromise after 30 years)
        • Compromise of 1850
          • Permanently tipped the balance to free states
          • Slavery question had a visible, “provoking” effect with the Fugitive Slave Act
          • Lead to K-N Act->Formation of Republican Party (1854)
    • slavery question further confronted by Dred Scott case (1857)

APUSH Unit III Essay Prep: Articles of Confederation to War of 1812 (circa 1770s-1800s)


So this is the first of the APUSH posts. I don’t have Unit I or II up because at the time, I didn’t do a lot of preparation for the first couple of units and what I did have was not sufficient for any sort of studying. Because of that, I’ll start with Unit III. I should also say that I won’t give you everything you need for each of these prompts because that’ll be no fun and it defeats the purpose of being an AP student. I’ll only give you the basic points and the synthesis and contextualization. Oh and any events I list may or may not be in chronological order, so be careful of that as well.

I was given these prompts, you might have gotten something different for Unit 3:

(1) “Our prevailing passions are ambition and interest; and it will be the duty of a wise government to avail itself of those passions, in order to make them subservient to the public good.” -Alexander Hamilton, 1787

How was this viewpoint manifested in Hamilton’s financial program as Secretary of the Treasury?

  • Synthesis: Second Bank of America (chartered in 1816 after the War of 1812 because they recognised the need to have a national banking system as well as a consistent national currency which is what they had trouble with during the War)
  • Contextualization: They needed to have the American people be loyal to the federal gov’t (and by extension, to the Constitution) as opposed to their local and state gov’ts and through the various aspects of Hamilton’s Financial Plan, tried to encourage nationalistic sentiments especially among the wealthy and affluent.
  • Points:
    • National Bank- Bank was made to be a corporation whose stocks could be purchased by third parties (turning private financial interest into national economic interest)
    • Funding Plan- plan to “fund” the national debt by a cycle of continuing to sell and pay off bonds
    • Assumption Plan- the federal gov’t would assume all state debts in exchange for moving the capital from the North to the Potomac
    • Basic Idea: If the citizens are personally invested in the country’s success, then these people will have more of an inclination to do things in the interest of the whole country as opposed to for themselves or for their state.

(2) Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790’s.

For this prompt, you need to state whether domestic or foreign affairs was more important in shaping American politics in the 1790s. I’ve listed what was happening in both categories. And depending on which one you thought was more important, the synthesis point I used may have to be tweaked.

  • Synthesis: Cold War- how foreign diplomatic failures overshadowed the later half of the 1900s after WWII, which should have been a relatively peaceful time, y’know, because all the major powers in the world needed to rebuild themselves economically, politically and especially in Germany, literally. Some relevant points would be McCarthyism and the Marshall Plan.
  • Contextualization: There’s a lot of things you can use here. For example, the French Revolution could count if you do it correctly.
  • Points:
    • Foreign Affairs:
      • French Revolution, Jay Treaty, US’s neutrality in foreign wars (GW’s Farewell Address), X, Y, Z Affair and the Convention of 1800 (end of Quasi-War with France)
    • Domestic:
      • Everything with Alex Hamilton and his Plan, strict v loose construction (Federalists vs Republicans), Whiskey Rebellion, Alien and Sedition Acts
    •  Politics:
      • George Washington(once again, his stance on US neutrality), Hamilton v Jefferson, Two Party System, Election of 1796 and the “Revolution”  of 1800

(3) To what extent was the election of 1800, sometimes known as the “Revolution of 1800”, a turning point in U.S. History?

  • Synthesis: Election of 1860, another election that had a monumental impact on US history otherwise known as when Lincoln became POTUS and when the Civil War starts
  • Contextualization: You could bring out how Jefferson’s ideas differed from the Federalists’ ideas and how this disagreement was a source of contention in the past.
  • Points:
    • Jefferson was the founder of the original Republican party (historians now call them Democratic-Republicans, but I’ll just keep it simple) and was the chief advocate for Republican ideals, in contrast to the first two presidents of the US who were Federalist (although GW wasn’t officially a Federalist, his tendency to agree with Hamilton meant that technically, he was one)
      • this obviously means that this is the first time there was a Republican president
      • this shift to Republican ideals means that the focus of the country was no longer at the national level but at the individual and state level
    • confirmed (in a way) the existence and legitimacy of a two-party system
    • the beginning of the downfall of the Federalist party
      • Judiciary Acts of 1801- changed courts with the intent to weaken Fed. party
    • reduced military budget and debt of the country
    • General Idea: How power transferred from the Federalists to the Republicans and what happened as the result

(4) Compare and contrast the contributions of two U.S. Presidents between 1788-1810 in helping to establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. (GW, Adams, Jefferson)

  • Synthesis: You can use Lincoln again because he was the first Republican president(the third party system-> Democrats vs Republicans) and he obviously drastically changed the country and helped stabilise the country by, y’know, winning the Civil War
  • Contextualization: There were three presidents during that time; you need to compare and contrast two in your essay. Whichever one is left, you can use for contextualization. I chose to use Adams as contextualization and how he continued Washington’s policies etc etc.
  • Points: 
    • George Washington:
      • highly respected and people followed his example (he had a calming effect during the turbulent times, so to speak)
      • helped America stay neutral with Proc. of Neutrality and Jay Treaty
      • put down Whiskey Rebellion partially through his reputation alone
      • set precedents for future presidents (it rhymes!-almost)
        • had an ideologically diverse cabinet
        • showed the people that having presidents doesn’t necessarily mean having to live under tyranny
      • exerted his presidential powers underneath the Constitution
        • for example, by passing the Judiciary Act of 1789 (that made the judiciary system and the Supreme Court)
      • supported Hamilton’s plans and thus put the US on good financial footing
        • included assumption plan and the moving of the capital, shifting loyalties more towards the country as a whole
    • Thomas Jefferson:
      • Louisiana Purchase-encouraged an agrarian economy
        • guaranteed the people’s independence as per Jefferson’s Republican ideals
        • Lewis and Clark Expedition- encouraged western expansion
      • a more minor thing- he decentralised power by disestablishing state churches
      • showed that a peaceful transfer of power was possible and didn’t try to stamp out Federalist influences in the gov’t
      • accepted opposition against him (John Marshall), confirming checks and balances
      • another more minor thing- had success dealing with the Barbary pirates which expanded trade in the Mediterranean

(5) Analyse the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the period 1775-1800.

  • Synthesis: Since the Civil War has been mentioned multiple times already, the next most obvious choice would be th 19th Amendments: when women got the right to vote
  • Contextualization: The First Great Awakening
  • Points:
    • Slaves:
      • anti-slavery sentiments were present before (for example, Quaker societies in 1775) but by 1792, even heavily pro-slavery places had anti-slavery sentiments like Virginia
        • side note: GW made it so that upon his wife’s death, all of his slaves were to be freed. Martha Washington set them free early.
      •  Lord Dunmore’s Proc (encouraging slaves to join British forces in return for freedom) caused slaves to rise against their masters, prompts Americans to offer freedom as well, tens of thousands later fled with the British
      • set ban date for the importation of slaves (1808)
      • NW Ordinance 1787 prohibits some territory from becoming slave states
      • BUT 3/5th Compromise, Fugitive Slave Clause and the fact that twenty years was allowed for the importation of slaves to stop
    • Women:
      • increased respect for their competence and rationality in managing family’s’ farms and businesses while men were away at war (Revolutionary War)
      • only legal gain-divorce was easier in some courts (to negligible effect)
      • social changes-wives were treated as more of a companion rather than as being treated as inferiors, some more freedom in choosing spouses, spinstership didn’t seem to be so bad anymore, women began to push for education (for example, Philadelphia’s Young Ladies Academy in 1787)
      • some female activists became famous for speaking out against the patriarchy; Abigail Adams and Judith Murray
      • Republican Mother, mothers seen as the passers of liberty and virtue onto their sons
      • BUT no real (tangible) progress in political power of females, traditional belief that women are subservient and weaker are still strongly held on to

(6) Evaluate the extent to which there was continuity in the conduct of United States foreign policy between 1789 and 1823.

  • Synthesis: US’s initial neutrality during WWI.
  • Context: Highlight what wars and foreign conflicts there were that could have affected America’s foreign policy and in particular, public opinion and by extension, the two-party system and the rise and fall of parties (like how the Federalist party lost favour because of the Hartford Convention).
  • Points:
    • George Washington remained neutral during his presidency (Proc of Neutrality and Farewell Address, later during the Napoleonic Wars and French Revolution)
      • Madison, Adams,  and Jefferson tried to remain neutral as well, but America ended up waging war with the British (War of 1812)
    • Attempts to use trade as a diplomatic weapon( not trading with either France or Britain). SPOILER: it doesn’t work.
    • GW renounced French-American Treaty and even had a Quasi-War with France (a break from previous good relationship with France, also seen with XYZ Affair and the aforementioned Quasi-War)
    • continued expansion (land grab) through Louisiana Purchase, Pinkney Treaty, Adams-Onis Treaty, Convention of 1818 (joint claim with Britain to Oregon Territory)
    • Continued limiting British influence (Jay’s Treaty, limited effects, Rush-Bagot Treaty) 
    • Continuity: War Hawks and how they wanted war with Britain, continued to use US commerce as diplomatic weapon (Macon’s Bill #2, Non-Intercourse Act, Embargo Act), Treaty of Ghent restored pre-war relationship with the British)
    • Monroe Doctrine (by Monroe and John Quincy Adams) warning against foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere