So, recursion, one of the hardest units in APCS. The concept is pretty easy but the execution is a bit trickier. Today, I’m going to pass on a trick that my teacher taught me on how to trace your way through a recursion problem.

I’m going to assume that y’all already know what recursion is and how it works so I’ll jump straight into tracing. Let’s start off with a basic problem.

First, you have to start from the bottom of the page and go up from there. As you go through every iteration of the recursive statement, you make a new line. So, this method with an x = 5 and y = 2, if solved, would look like this:

The bottommost line contains the original call to the method with 5 and 2 being x and y, respectively. The right of the diagram shows the operations within the recursive call and all the way at the top, the 17 represents what is returned by the base case when x becomes 0.

Let’s look at a recursive method that also prints something out in each iteration of the recursive statement.

For these problems, you would have to see where the print statement is in relation to the recursive statement. If the print statement is before the recursive statement, then the order of the printed lines go up and vice versa. So the tracing would look like this if n = 3:

So the output would look like:

3

2

1

Blastoff!

If the println statement was after the recursive statement, you would have to write them next to the after arrow and Blastoff! would be printed first.

So, these are the basics. If you guys have any specific questions for specific problems, feel free to contact me and I’ll help however I can.

Sorting methods as it pertains to arrays isn’t the simplest thing to wrap your head around but the concept and the way they should work should be pretty intuitive. You would need to know about two main sorting methods in APCS; the selection sort and the insertion sort. Like the different types of loops, both of these sorting methods have pros and cons attached to them.

Selection Sort

A selection sort is a tedious affair. Basically, what it does is takes each value in each index position and compares that value to all the other values to the right of it (after it) in the array. When it finds the smallest/largest value that exists to the right of its index position, it swaps places with it. In this way, this method sorts all of its value in either ascending or descending order of value.

Let’s take a look at what a selection sort in ascending order looks like in code:

//nums is an array of int values

//the variables min and minIndex both hold int values

for (int i = 0; i < nums.length – 1; i++)

{

min = nums[i];

minIndex = i;

for (int j = i; j < nums.length; j++)

{

if (nums[j] < min)

{

min = nums[j];

minIndex = j;

}

}

int temp = nums[i];

nums[i] = nums[minIndex];

nums[minIndex] = temp;

}

This is a daunting bit of code at first. However, if we understand mechanically how this sorting method works, it might help you understand better. For example, if I had an array of int values, this is what the array would look like after every pass of the outer loop:

(1) The outer loop started at index position 0, took the number 16 at index 0 and started to loop through the values after it to find the smallest number, which happened to be the number 1 at index position 5. Then, the numbers 1 and 16 swapped places due to the inner loop. That was the first pass of the outer loop.

(2) Then, the outer loop looked at index position 1 and picked up the number 3 at index 1 and looped through the values to the right to find the smallest number. Since there were no values to the right that was smaller than 3, the inner loop swapped the 3 at index 1 with 3 at index 1, which meant the 3 swapped with itself and stayed where it is.

This process would repeat until it got to the second to last number by which time, the last number in the array would already be in its final sorted position so the number of passes the outer loop needs to fully sort an array is always the length of the array minus 1. By this rule, if we were on the fourth pass of the outer loop, the first four values of the array would have been in their final sorted places.

Let’s break down the code and see what the first pass of the outer loop looks like:

for (int i = 0; i < nums.length – 1; i++)

The outer loop just goes through the whole length of the array. In the first pass, i would be set to 0.

min = nums[i];

minIndex = i;

This sets min to the number currently at the index position of whatever element the outer loop is currently looking at. So, min would be set to the number at index 0 on the first pass, which would be the number 16. The index of the smallest number would be default set to the index of the number that we’re currently looking at, which would be index 0.

for (int j = i; j < nums.length; j++)

This inner loop would loop through all the index positions to the right of the number at the index position we’re currently looking at, which would be all the values stored in the index positions after index 0.

if (nums[j] < min){

min = nums[j];

minIndex = j; }

This if statement compares the current min value (16) to all the values right of its index position (0). If it finds a number that is smaller, it will set the smaller value to min and set its index position to minIndex. The inner loop would cause this if statement to compare whatever smallest number it has found so far to the numbers in the index positions to the right. When it came to the number 1 at index 5, it set min to 1 and minIndex to 5. After going through the rest of the array, it didn’t find any smaller value so those variables stayed the same and we exit out of the inner loop.

int temp = nums[i];

nums[i] = nums[minIndex];

nums[minIndex] = temp;

This piece of code should look familiar; after all, it should be a simple puzzle that confronts many beginner programmers. Basically, what this does is it swaps the two numbers at the two index positions. In this case, temp would be set to 16, then the index position 1 would be overridden with the value at minIndex(5) which is 1. Then, temp (16) would override what was at index 5, effectively swapping the 16 and 1. This repeats until it has touched all but the last index position in the array, at which point the array is fully sorted and the outer loop terminates.

Arrays are basically lists of things. This list can contain both objects and primitive data. The basic array can be declared and instantiated as such:

(data type)[ ] (arrayname) = new (data type) [(number of elements)];

Since arrays are considered as objects, the declaration and instantiation follow the pattern of other objects. So, if I wanted the array to store a total of ten names, I would make the array like so:

String[ ] names = newString[10];

Arrays have index values for every element they contain. If I had an array called nums that contained the numbers 1, 2, and 3, the number 1 would have the index position of 0, the number 2 would have index position 1 and the number 3 would have the index position 2 and so on.

Like Strings, arrays have a method that returns the length of the object. In the case of arrays, you would call the method .length. The .length method for arrays does not need the double parentheses.

So, if you wanted to know the length (or number of elements) of the array names, you would do this:

names.length;

We now go on to loops. This is quite simple. Looping through an array is pretty easy and intuitive. If I were to use a for loop to go through every element of the array names which contains 10 String objects, it would look something like this:

Heya! This will be the first of the AP Com Sci lab solutions on Outlet. I will be uploading these labs starting from Chapter 2 because Chapter 1 is a no-brainer. For that matter, Chapter 2 is a no-brainer too. I will upload parts of the code because even though these posts are supposed to contain the “answers”, you’re still going to have to know how to write these programs and know the concepts behind the programs to pass this class. I will not contribute to your failure. If you have any questions, you can comment them below or shoot me an email on the contact page.

For Chapter 2, I will only post about three labs, the Base Conversion Lab (pg 2-4), the Circle Labs (of which I’ll cover the Circle2 part on pg 5-7) and the String Manipulation Lab (pg 8-10) since the rest are the most fundamental basics and don’t have much to cover.