4-Part Analysis of Invisible Man (Part 4)

[Synthesis with “Nomenclatures of Invisibility” by Mahtem Shiferraw]

This poem resonates with Brother Clifton’s last moments and what his actions near the end meant. There are two things to be considered when talking about what happened when the IM sees Brother Clifton for the last time. One side says that Brother Clifton, by trying to sell the Sambo dolls, is mocking those who smile and let others step on them like the caricature that the Sambo dolls represent. His actions could also be explained by the fact that he’s given up hope, seeing the organisation he’s worked in moving further and further away from its original goal and is acting out of desperation or a sense of hopelessness. This can be seen in the lines highlighted in the second to last stanza where it refers both to the “yes” man Sambo represents and the fact that the white man is untrustable when it comes to the fate of the brother, where, in almost every instance in the book, the white men (except Emerson Jr.) have been working against the black people, working ruin among the black community with honeyed words and empty promises (in Clifton’s case, the power-hungry Jack).

The second stanza, with brothers being lost at sea, can also be linked to the fact that not all the black characters in the book like Brockway and Bledsoe are interested in the advancement of their people aka being lost at sea. The next section is about mothers burning without being able to put it out. The first thing I thought of was the memory the IM has about his grandfather and how his mother had reacted to his grandfather’s words, ushering the children out of the room. She could be one of the brothers lost at sea too, a Sambo doll. On the other hand, it also reminds me of how black women were often raped by their masters and they couldn’t do anything about it. Nobody would listen to them and it happens over and over again. This ties back to the prologue where one of the things that the IM hallucinates while listening to music was a black woman talking about her mulatto sons and about how she both hates the man who raped her and loves him for giving her her sons so she is tormented by this paradox. I think this is characteristic of a lot of people are told to listen to others. Their instructors try to force them into a reality that the listener knows is somehow wrong but they’re unable to grasp it because it’s all they know so they get confused. This is true of the oppressed whether it be a race or an innocent child.

[On how the IM was able to portray the realities of living as a black man]

Since we’re nearing the conclusion of the book, I want to look into the effect of political satire and the sort of cynical commentary featured in this book.

To start with, it has been noted that the late night shows have been instrumental especially in the past two years in keeping people informed. With the official news outlets being bombarded with new scandalous headlines every day, viewers aren’t able to focus on any one issue for a significant time and the result is that often, the trivial and the scandalous takes prominence over the more mundane aspects of national news and this is dangerous. The mundane may consist of Congress’s activities, it may be events in foreign policy or it may be about the numerous movements taking place in the country right now.



Early studies of the content of late-night comedy monologues suggested that late-night political jokes tended to focus on the executive branch and were almost “devoid’ of policy content, focusing instead on personalities and weaknesses of individual politicians (Niven, Lichter, and Amundson, 2003). Recent research on the content of televised political humor complicates these initial observations. The themes included in the content of The Daily Show, for example, are often more issue-oriented than those of Leno or Letterman (National Annenberg Election Survey, 2004). In fact, scholars have found comparable treatment of substantive issues across the content of The Daily Show and network news broadcasts during the same time period (Fox, Koloen, and Sahin, 2007).


During the past decade, several reports from the Pew Center for the People and the Press concluded that young people, more so than older people, were increasingly reporting learning about politics from comedy shows (Pew, 2004). At the same time, young people were reporting lower rates of learning from traditional news programming. Yet the contention that young people are abandoning traditional news in favor of comedy programming is not supported by existing research (Young and Tisinger, 2006). Youthful late-night comedy viewers are more likely to be consuming news on cable networks, on the radio, and online than their non-comedy-viewing counterparts. Cross-sectional studies also contradict the assumption of the “politically disengaged” audience, as late-night comedy viewers, particularly those of the Daily Show, are more politically knowledgeable, more participatory, and more attentive to politics than non-late-night viewers (Brewer and Cao, 2006; Brewer, Young, and Morreale, 2013; Cao, 2010; Cao and Brewer, 2008; Young and Tisinger, 2006).


Qualitative and cultural research has chronicled how and why the once-strict divide between entertainment and news no longer exists (Baym, 2009a; Williams and Delli Carpini, 2002), and that scholars should explore political humor not as an alternative to political information, but as an alternative form of political information (Baym, 2009b). Work by Baym (2005, 2009a) highlights how political humor challenges the notion that journalistic practices such as objectivity and sensationalism are necessary or beneficial to society. Work by Jones (2009) and Van Zoonen (2005) suggests that by addressing political themes outside the traditional elite model of political discourse, political humor might invite more people into the political conversation.



One of the points raised in the paper was about how political commentary is more engaging to the audience so people pay more attention and connect more personally with what’s being said. I think this is true in a lot of instances in IM. The IM himself doesn’t have a name nor does he have a physical description so he is supposed to be the ultimate conduit to conduct us into his world and experience his frustrations and setbacks from his point-of-view. Since the narrator is the IM from the future, the tone in various parts of the story has a sort of irony where the situation at hand is described and the IM having an inadequate reaction. It is as if he was mocking his past naivety. Ellison also draws upon the political climate during the 50s and makes parallels to historical figures like W.E.B Du Bois and Carver Washington. More importantly, because the IM has a relatable background as a college-educated citizen, even those who aren’t able to identify with his plight can imagine the scenarios described may affect themselves. By making scenarios really personal with parallels to real life, Ellison not only can provide criticism especially when the innocent IM is horribly mistreated but also put these scenarios in a more pronounced setting than what a typical person would experience, safely removing the reader from experiencing too personally some of the more morbid and graphic scenes in the book. In all, the form of a novel allowed Ellison to more deeply explore the more nuanced aspects of a black person’s life and allowed the readers to better understand them and be more willing to accept them as real. 

How To Read/Trace Recursive Methods

So, recursion, one of the hardest units in APCS. The concept is pretty easy but the execution is a bit trickier. Today, I’m going to pass on a trick that my teacher taught me on how to trace your way through a recursion problem.

I’m going to assume that y’all already know what recursion is and how it works so I’ll jump straight into tracing. Let’s start off with a basic problem.

This problem is from here.


First, you have to start from the bottom of the page and go up from there. As you go through every iteration of the recursive statement, you make a new line. So, this method with an x = 5 and y = 2, if solved, would look like this:


The bottommost line contains the original call to the method with 5 and 2 being x and y, respectively. The right of the diagram shows the operations within the recursive call and all the way at the top, the 17 represents what is returned by the base case when x becomes 0.

Let’s look at a recursive method that also prints something out in each iteration of the recursive statement.

This problem is from here.


For these problems, you would have to see where the print statement is in relation to the recursive statement. If the print statement is before the recursive statement, then the order of the printed lines go up and vice versa. So the tracing would look like this if n = 3:


So the output would look like:





If the println statement was after the recursive statement, you would have to write them next to the after arrow and Blastoff! would be printed first.

So, these are the basics. If you guys have any specific questions for specific problems, feel free to contact me and I’ll help however I can.

This is Lieutenant out.

AP Bio Cell Energetics Diagrams

Side Note: I don’t know if my little notes on the margins are entirely correct but the diagrams should be. If in doubt, always refer to your textbook or ask the teacher. This is one of the harder units along with genetics. Good luck!

APCS Chapter 6: 2D Arrays and ArrayLists

Alright, it’s time to tackle 2D arrays and arrayLists. 2D arrays are basically arrays of arrays. First off, 2D arrays:

2D Arrays

To start off with, the declaration and instantiation. Since 2D arrays are objects, we will use the new operator. There are several ways to do this:

The “normal” way:

data type [] [] name = new data type [# of rows] [# of collumns];

Example: I want to create a 2D array called nums containing int data with 2 rows and 3 collumns:

int[] [] nums = new int[2][3];

If you want to create a jagged array where each row is of a different length, then you can input your values directly into the 2D array. There are several ways to do this but I’m going to show you guys the simplest one:

int[] [] nums =


{4, 5, 6, 4},

{7, 234, 34, 1},

{23, 57, 2}


(Of course, you can write this all on one line but this layout looks more intuitive.)

So, this is what the 2D array would look like visually:


If this were a rectangular 2D array and not a jagged array, any attempt to retrieve a data value from the index position (3, 2) would return null so keep that in mind if you are manipulating or accessing a 2D array. There is also a thing called sparseArrays and an FRQ concerning sparseArrays has popped up on the AP exams (although I don’t think it’s likely to pop up again but hey, the more you know…) so here’s a link that kind of explains it but I don’t really think you need to know it for this class because it’s a little more high-level.

Traversing Through a 2D Array

With 2D arrays, you also need to know how to traverse through them. You can do this through the basic three types of loops. I’m going to show an example of each.

For Loops

You can use both the for loop and a for each loop. In my examples, I’m going to use the loops to add up all the numbers in the 2D array. I’m going to use the nums array that I instantiated above (all of the loops work with regular 2D arrays as well as jagged 2D arrays). This is how to use a regular nested for loop to go through every element in a 2D array and add them up.

int sum = 0;

for (int row = 0; row < nums.length; row++)

for (int col = 0; col < nums[row].length; col++)

sum += nums[row][col];

For Each Loop

For each loops are a little less intuitive to use but in the first part of the parameters denote which type of data type you’re trying to handle within the array and the second part is the array that you want to traverse through.

int sum = 0;

for (int[] num : nums)  //this looks at each row of thes 2D array

for (int i : num)  //this looks at all the data values within each row

sum+= num;

Both of these loops do the same thing.

While Loops

As a rule of thumb, while loops are used when you don’t know how many times iterations you need the loop to go through. I’m just going to use the basic example I used above and write a while loop instead.

int row = 0, col = 0, sum = 0;

while (row < nums.length) {

while (col < nums[row].length) {

sum += nums[row][col];

col++; }

row++; }


APCS Ch 6: Sorting and Searching Methods

Sorting methods as it pertains to arrays isn’t the simplest thing to wrap your head around but the concept and the way they should work should be pretty intuitive. You would need to know about two main sorting methods in APCS; the selection sort and the insertion sort. Like the different types of loops, both of these sorting methods have pros and cons attached to them.

Selection Sort

A selection sort is a tedious affair. Basically, what it does is takes each value in each index position and compares that value to all the other values to the right of it (after it) in the array. When it finds the smallest/largest value that exists to the right of its index position, it swaps places with it. In this way, this method sorts all of its value in either ascending or descending order of value.

Let’s take a look at what a selection sort in ascending order looks like in code:

//nums is an array of int values

//the variables min and minIndex both hold int values

for (int i = 0; i < nums.length – 1; i++)


min = nums[i];

minIndex = i;

for (int j = i; j < nums.length; j++)


if (nums[j] < min)


min = nums[j];

minIndex = j;



int temp = nums[i];

nums[i] = nums[minIndex];

nums[minIndex] = temp;


This is a daunting bit of code at first. However, if we understand mechanically how this sorting method works, it might help you understand better. For example, if I had an array of int values, this is what the array would look like after every pass of the outer loop:


(1) The outer loop started at index position 0, took the number 16 at index 0 and started to loop through the values after it to find the smallest number, which happened to be the number 1 at index position 5. Then, the numbers 1 and 16 swapped places due to the inner loop. That was the first pass of the outer loop.

(2) Then, the outer loop looked at index position 1 and picked up the number 3 at index 1 and looped through the values to the right to find the smallest number. Since there were no values to the right that was smaller than 3, the inner loop swapped the 3 at index 1 with 3 at index 1, which meant the 3 swapped with itself and stayed where it is.

This process would repeat until it got to the second to last number by which time, the last number in the array would already be in its final sorted position so the number of passes the outer loop needs to fully sort an array is always the length of the array minus 1. By this rule, if we were on the fourth pass of the outer loop, the first four values of the array would have been in their final sorted places.

Let’s break down the code and see what the first pass of the outer loop looks like:

for (int i = 0; i < nums.length – 1; i++)

The outer loop just goes through the whole length of the array. In the first pass, i would be set to 0.

min = nums[i];

minIndex = i;

This sets min to the number currently at the index position of whatever element the outer loop is currently looking at. So, min would be set to the number at index 0 on the first pass, which would be the number 16. The index of the smallest number would be default set to the index of the number that we’re currently looking at, which would be index 0.

 for (int j = i; j < nums.length; j++)

This inner loop would loop through all the index positions to the right of the number at the index position we’re currently looking at, which would be all the values stored in the index positions after index 0.

if (nums[j] < min){

min = nums[j];

minIndex = j; }

This if statement compares the current min value (16) to all the values right of its index position (0). If it finds a number that is smaller, it will set the smaller value to min and set its index position to minIndex. The inner loop would cause this if statement to compare whatever smallest number it has found so far to the numbers in the index positions to the right. When it came to the number 1 at index 5, it set min to 1 and minIndex to 5. After going through the rest of the array, it didn’t find any smaller value so those variables stayed the same and we exit out of the inner loop.

int temp = nums[i];

nums[i] = nums[minIndex];

nums[minIndex] = temp;

This piece of code should look familiar; after all, it should be a simple puzzle that confronts many beginner programmers. Basically, what this does is it swaps the two numbers at the two index positions. In this case, temp would be set to 16, then the index position 1 would be overridden with the value at minIndex(5) which is 1. Then, temp (16) would override what was at index 5, effectively swapping the 16 and 1. This repeats until it has touched all but the last index position in the array, at which point the array is fully sorted and the outer loop terminates.

See next page for Insertion Sort

APCS Ch 6: Arrays Basics

Arrays are basically lists of things. This list can contain both objects and primitive data. The basic array can be declared and instantiated as such:

(data type)[ ] (arrayname) = new (data type) [(number of elements)];

Since arrays are considered as objects, the declaration and instantiation follow the pattern of other objects. So, if I wanted the array to store a total of ten names, I would make the array like so:

String[ ] names = new String[10];

Arrays have index values for every element they contain. If I had an array called nums that contained the numbers 1, 2, and 3, the number 1 would have the index position of 0, the number 2 would have index position 1 and the number 3 would have the index position 2 and so on.

Like Strings, arrays have a method that returns the length of the object. In the case of arrays, you would call the method .length. The  .length method for arrays does not need the double parentheses.

So, if you wanted to know the length (or number of elements) of the array names, you would do this:


We now go on to loops. This is quite simple. Looping through an array is pretty easy and intuitive. If I were to use a for loop to go through every element of the array names which contains 10 String objects, it would look something like this:

for (int i = 0; i < names.length; i++)


//body of the loop


AP Com Sci Chapter 2 Lab Review

Heya! This will be the first of the AP Com Sci lab solutions on Outlet. I will be uploading these labs starting from Chapter 2 because Chapter 1 is a no-brainer. For that matter, Chapter 2 is a no-brainer too. I will upload parts of the code because even though these posts are supposed to contain the “answers”,  you’re still going to have to know how to write these programs and know the concepts behind the programs to pass this class. I will not contribute to your failure. If you have any questions, you can comment them below or shoot me an email on the contact page.

For Chapter 2, I will only post about three labs, the Base Conversion Lab (pg 2-4), the Circle Labs (of which I’ll cover the Circle2 part on pg 5-7) and the String Manipulation Lab (pg 8-10) since the rest are the most fundamental basics and don’t have much to cover.

Let’s get right into it.

AP Lang Essay Prep: How Your Essay Should Look

Welcome y’all.

So, as you all should know, there are three essays that you need to write for AP Lang.

  1. Synthesis
  2. Argumentative
  3. Rhetorical Analysis



If you’ve taken an AP history class, then you are in for an easy ride.

Synthesis is exactly like the DBQ except a whole lot easier because you’re only required to use three documents instead of the usual six. So your layout would look something similar to the DBQ, which is something like this:

  1. Intro (+2 points for contextualization)
  2. Thesis (+1 point for thesis/argument)
  3. Body
    1. Introduce/cite document (ex: [Doc A]) after summarizing
    2. HIPPO* (+1 point for HIPPO; required 4 out of 6 documents for full credit)
    3. Relate back to how document proves thesis (+1 point for cohesive argument)
    4. Repeat for however many docs you have
  4. Outside Knowledge (+1 point for knowledge not mentioned in text helping argument)
  5. Conclusion
    1. Restate thesis
    2. Restate each body paragraph into one sentence each

Except your synthesis should look something like this: (Keep in mind that there is no rubric for this so your essay is based on your rhetoric and organization more than a DBQ would be.)

  1. Intro
  2. Thesis
  3. Body
    1. Introduce/cite document
    2. Analyze and explain (kinda like HIPPO)
    3. Relate back to how document proves thesis
    4. Repeat for only 3 documents!!
  4.  Conclusion
    1. Restate thesis
    2. Restate each body paragraph into one sentence each
    3. End conclusion with broad and deep message that resonates throughout the audience

* Historical context, Intended audience, Purpose, Point of view, Outside information



Again, for argumentative essay, it’s exactly like the LEQ for AP US. You’re legit pulling knowledge out of your butt to argue for a claim. This is similar to synthesis except for the fact that you don’t have documents to facilitate your claim. This can be good or bad. Good because you’re not required to waste time on finding the documents that help your argument. Bad because you have to come up with your own evidence. There’s less structure for an argumentative essay, but the basic outline goes like this:

  1. Intro
  2. Thesis
  3. Body
    1. Clearly state the purpose of this body paragraph
    2. Analyze evidence you have provided
    3. Relate back to how evidence proves thesis
    4. Repeat for however much evidence you want to include, but remember the time limit!
  4. Conclusion
    1. Restate thesis
    2. Restate each body paragraph into one sentence each
    3. End conclusion with broad and deep message that resonates throughout the audience

Because an argumentative essay prompt can go in infinite directions based off of the evidence that you provide, this is a little vague, but an argumentative essay can easily be the most difficult one or a breeze depending on the prompt and how you want to structure your essay.


Rhetorical Analysis

This one is, in my opinion, the hardest one because I don’t have experience with this as I do with the other two in different classes. I ONLY FOUND OUT MUCH LATER THAT THIS IS YOUR USUAL SAT ESSAY. Done SAT before? Then no problem. Haven’t done SAT yet? You need this. My suggestion is that you should separate the analysis into beginning, middle, and end. What does the author do at the beginning of the passage to be persuasive? How does the author sound convincing in the middle of the passage? In what way does the author conclude his/her piece that’ll make the audience see his/her perspective? I usually outline my essay like this:

  1. Intro (SOAPS* it: introduce the document that you are analyzing)
  2. Thesis
  3. Body (analyze the most important persuasive tactics used—ask yourself, does that negligible metaphor used to persuade me more than the loaded words used to elicit some sort of feeling from me? Remember, you are on a time limit. Prioritize which rhetoric you want to go in-depth with.)
    1. Beginning
    2. Middle
    3. End
  4. Conclusion
    1. Restate thesis
    2. Restate each body paragraph into one sentence each
    3. End conclusion with broad and deep message that resonates throughout the audience

You can draw multiple parallels between many of the essays that I mentioned. Here are some pointers to always, always, ALWAYS remember when writing your essay.

  • You want to be flowery with your language a little. Show off. Throw a few words like “juxtaposition” or “plethora” or “effervescent” here and there. Utilize that vocabulary.
  • But don’t be too verbose. Do not overstep your boundaries. While you want to sound sophisticated, you also want to be succinct. Passive tone, being verbs, bland adjectives—all unnecessary. (NO “to be able to”!!)
  • Power of three. Reread the point above. “Passive tone, being verbs, bland adjectives”, it all just sounds so right. When listing items, don’t list two or four. Listing three gives a sort of unknown power that makes your writing sound… correct. There’s some sort of science behind this, I just don’t think it’s been figured out yet. This is an actual thing, though. Search it up.
  • Scaling along with being too wordy, try to avoid using the words “logos”, “pathos”, and “ethos” in your essay. While you are trying to show how an author uses these three points to persuade their audience, you can easily say how the author does so without explicitly saying it. Your grader will know what you’re talking about. Spend time analyzing what the author is doing rather than summarizing what the author is doing using these three terms. Show, not tell.
  • While these points seem counterintuitive and contradictory to each other, more practice will allow you to find that happy medium that will achieve all these points in no time! You just have to believe!!

*Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject

Thanks for taking your time to read my lecture to you. Good luck to you all on the exam!

Full Experimental Design for Testing Cognitive Ability Through Temperature Control

*This Experimental Design was a project for an AP Psych class so it’s not representative of what a real experimental design looks like. This design also ties into a previous article on the site that goes over tbe subject of the study a little less formally. This design was based off of said article, actually. Click here to see the original article.

Section I: Proposal


There is a widespread myth that humans use only ten percent of their brains and how it implies that we have a lot of untapped potential. While the myth has been scientifically proven to be false, the fact that the brain usually isn’t usually functioning in its highest capacity might be true. There are concerns regarding the impacts of external factors on the brain’s performance in certain activities, like temperature. In order to test if there are effects on the brain in different temperatures and what the potential outcomes are, we are researching this topic and conducting this experiment to see if adult individuals placed into different temperatures will yield significantly different test performances.


Section II: Background Research

The human brain accounts for 25% of the body’s total glucose utilization and 20% of its oxygen consumption. While using these biological fuels for its cognitive processes, the brain also generates a lot of heat. However, to the fragile neurons in the brain, any significant deviance of the temperature from the baseline would cause incomparable damage. We also know that the brain has a maximum temperature limit, but its minimum temperature limit is not yet defined, meaning that the brain ails under high heat while it is more resistant under cooler temperatures. These points are supported in the naturalistic observational study conducted by Kiyatkin, E. A. (2010), where it stated, “Brain cells are exceptionally sensitive to heat, with some irreversible damage starting to occur at ~40°C, only about 3°C above normal baseline, and progressing exponentially with slight increases above these levels.”

While our brains are liable to overhead, we have also evolved ways to maintain the temperature. In “The Rationale for Human Selective Brain Cooling”, the authors B.A. Harris and P.J.D. Andrews (1970, p. 738) listed three ways in which humans have adapted to help maintain our brain’s temperature, “[the] cooling of venous blood by the skin which in turn cools the arterial (carotid) blood supply to the brain; cooling by heat loss through the skull; and cooling by heat loss from the upper airways.” With so many adaptations designed to cool the brain, then it is evident that keeping the brain’s temperature as close to the baseline temperature as possible is crucial to our survival. It also means that because of the amount of heat being exchanged at the level of the skin from the brain, then the room temperature of a location will affect the brain temperature of everyone present. Harris, B.A. et tal.’s paper was based on anatomical study and it also goes on to say that, “as the brains of early humans grew in size, their emissary veins developed in tandem, which supports the radiator theory that as humans evolved and developed bigger brains they must have developed an increased venous cooling capacity.” What that means is that by using existing data about our evolutionary history, it has been concluded that as our brains evolved to become more complex and more adept at higher-level thinking, as evolving bigger brains means the development of the limbic and the mammalian brain and therefore the development of higher-level thinking, our species developed more sophisticated cooling systems in tandem. In other words, as our brains began developing higher-level cognitive abilities and our brains began using up more energy and generating more heat from those abilities, we needed more effective and complicated cooling systems to keep up the level of thinking we were doing, therefore demonstrating the importance of the temperature of our brains in our level of cognitive ability.

There was an experiment done by Haider, B. et tal. (2010) that concluded that there were inhibitory neurons in our brain that stopped the brain from consciously processing information that is deemed irrelevant in an effort to save energy. In other words, because the brain is trying to conserve energy and limit heat output, it is also cutting back on what sensory information it is processing and committing to memory. This means that most of what we see and hear etc through our five senses and most of our more fleeting thoughts are lost before we are even aware of them. If the brain were to be in a cooler environment, then perhaps it won’t need to cut back on its processing power as much and our cognitive ability will grow as more information will be consciously available to us.

These studies all support the fact that the brain does, in fact, benefit from lower temperatures to offset the amount of heat it generates. While these studies don’t strictly show that cognitive ability is linked to temperature, it provides a strong foundation in which we will base our study on in proving the relationship between a cooler room temperature and higher cognitive ability.

Our study will be an experiment where we will administer creativity tests that test the participants’ cognitive creativity in the form of spontaneous drawings with nudges in the form of abstract shapes or lines. We will also administer cognitive tests similar in nature to CogAT to test cognitive ability in pattern recognition and spatial awareness as well as other high-level mental processes. The participants would be tested first in a room-temperature room to establish their baseline score before being tested again in their experimental rooms with varying temperatures. Our conclusions will be drawn from the difference in the participants’ scores from each individual’s first round of testing to the second, therefore their improvement or decline in test performance would be calculated in relation to each individual’s original score. By doing this, we hope to see if the temperature of a room affects cognitive ability.


Section III: Experimental Design

Our hypothesis is that if an adult is placed in a room with a cool temperature at sixty-three degrees Fahrenheit, they will have a higher level of cognitive ability and perform better on cognitive tests and creativity tests compared to their control data in a room-temperature room at seventy-three degrees Fahrenheit. However, if an adult is placed in a room with a hotter temperature at eighty-three Fahrenheit, they will have a lower level of cognitive ability than when they were in the room-temperature room and will perform more poorly compared to their control data as the participants who were tested the second time around in the cool room. The colder room, in turn, would lead to a boost in each of the experimental group’s scores on the test more than the hot room in comparison to their score when the participants were all in a room-temperature room.

In our experiment, the independent variable is the temperature of the rooms that each participant goes into to take the test (either the sixty-three degree cool, the seventy-three degree room temperature or the eighty-three degree warm room), while the dependent variable is the test results of the randomly selected adults. The independent variable would be the room temperature and the dependent variable will be the difference between the test scores of each participant’s control score and their experimental score. (improvement, no change, or decrease in scores).

To make sure that the data collected from the experiment was really dependent on room temperature and was not up to chance, we have to have a control group that will test both times in a room-temperature room (seventy-three degrees Fahrenheit).

To control for confounding variables, around several day’s time will be given to adjust for potential jet lag after the randomly selected adults travel from various locations in America to the place where the experiment will be conducted. The participant’s overall level of health, with factors like sleep, diet or stress level, will be monitored and kept with little to no variation between the two testing periods. Besides the room temperature, every other aspect about the rooms will be the same for every room so that distracting posters, noise, or other such things will not be present to affect concentration when the participants switch rooms. The participants are also all going to wear the same clothes in both rounds of testing to ensure that their body temperature is consistently being affected by the temperature of the room. The participants will take their first test and their second test at the same time of day so that the impact of different cognitive levels at different times of day for each participant will be nullified. The participants will also be provided with adequate water for both rounds of testing so that another important factor of brain functionality, hydration, is being controlled for. Different tests will be administered in each round of testing so that participants do not get the chance to be more familiar with the test in the second round. The difficulty of the two tests being administered for both rounds of testing will be maintained to ensure that the scores aren’t affected by an easier or harder test in the second round. Of course, we will make sure that participants aren’t affected by other participants by testing each of them separately. There is a time limit of one hour for the cognitive tests and the tests will be made so that it can reasonably be completed in this time. This is so that everyone has the same time limit and it will be made clear to participants that they are under such a limitation. The time limit for the creativity tests would be thirty minutes so that their creative ideas have to have some amount of real spontaneous creativity rather than let the participants ruminate on what they could draw. The time limit would also curtail the body’s ability to become acclimated to the rooms’ temperatures and would therefore render the difference in room temperature null. To ensure that all participants start off at about the same body temperature, all participants would be required to stay in a room-temperature room for thirty minutes before testing. There will also be small reward for participating in the study to ensure participants’ continuing levels of motivation.

This will be a single blind study, in which the participants will not know why they are being tested or what the variables the scientists are testing are, they will only be aware that they will take the tests right before testing begins. We will also control for experimenter bias by ensuring that multiple scientists facilitate the experiment in order to be sure that no one scientist manipulates the experiment to procure the hypothesized results or interprets the results wrongly simply to prove the hypothesis correct. We will conduct the experiment with participants selected randomly from around the United States in order for the results to be representative of American adults. The random sample will include participants who live in different states and they are going to be gathered together for the test. There will be thirty participants in total with fifteen being male and fifteen being female. For the two experimental groups (hot and cold) and the control group, the participants will be randomly selected to be in any of the three groups. In the experimental round, there will be five males and five females who will test under each of the room temperature conditions to ensure fair representation of genders, all randomly selected, of course.


Section IV: Ethical Concerns and Practical Applications

There are five key components for an experiment to be considered ethical. First informed consent is need from every participant of the experiment, meaning that they are given enough information about the experiment to understand the risks but not enough that it would significantly affect the outcome of the study. If the possible participant is under eighteen years old, then parent permission is needed. Voluntary withdrawal is another key component; the participant should have the right to stop participating in the experiment if they desire to. The third thing that those conducting an experiment should do is protect all participants from emotional or physical harm. Fourth is confidentiality, identities must not be revealed. The last component is debriefing; the experiment should be fully explained to the participant after it is over.

Any scientist or other individual/group must follow this guideline in order to conduct an ethical experiment. The experiment that we would conduct does conform to all the APA ethical guidelines. The thirty participants in the study would all be informed of the objective of the study and decide to give consent. It would be made known before the experiment started that they can withdraw at any moment. Neither will any of the participants be physically or emotionally harmed; they would be given the task to complete a creative and a cognitive ability test in different temperature rooms. The identities of the thirty participants would not be revealed at any given time, and they would be fully debriefed when the experiment is complete. 

If completed, this study would benefit the human race. This experiment could provide insight into ways that employers and educator could use to enhance cognitive ability, improving the education that children in schools receive and the productivity of the workplace. If it is proved that temperature affects cognitive ability or at what temperature the brain functions at the best then it would enrich the human race. It could lead to further knowledge of the brain and change the temperatures in school buildings, work environments, public establishments, etc. so that the individuals spending time in these locations work and perform at their maximum potential.



Harris, B. A., & Andrews, P. J. (1970, January 01). The Rationale for Human Selective

Brain Cooling. Retrieved August 29, 2017, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-56011-8_66


 Kiyatkin, E. A. (2010, January 01). BRAIN TEMPERATURE

HOMEOSTASISPHYSIOLOGICAL FLUCTUATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL SHIFTS. Retrieved August ccc29, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149793


 Haider, B., Krause, M. R., Duque, A., Yu, Y., Touryan, J., Mazer, J. A., & Mccormick,

D. (2010). Synaptic and Network Mechanisms of Sparse and Reliable Visual Cortical Activity during Nonclassical Receptive Field Stimulation. Neuron,65(1), 107 121. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.005

What You Need to Know for the APUSH Exam [A Short Note]

Everything’s fairly straightforward. You have 55 multiple choice questions that are stimulus-based. With general knowledge about the trends and important events in US History, you should do just fine. I didn’t study at all for the exam and I was totally fine. That said, that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t study but the exam is going to be easier than the classwork so it’s really not that hard. After the multiple choice, there are four SAQ (short answer questions) where they ask you general questions about time periods. For 2017, one of the SAQs was about the Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction era. If you want an example, APCollege has released the 2017 AP Exam essay questions here. Then, you have a DBQ and an LEQ. Once again, you can see the 2017 essay prompts at the link above. The essays should be the same as the ones you write in class but it’s easier because it’s usually more general and don’t require the amount of specificity that in-class essays usually need.

In conclusion, you’re going to be fine. If you’ve done decently well in class, then you’re definitely going to get at least a 3. If you have trouble, go to your teacher or organise an APUSH AP Exam study group. If anything, you can ask me if you have any questions. Good luck!